Subjects

Sections | |||
---|---|---|---|

Nuclear Physics | 0 mins | 0 completed | Learn |

0 of 0 completed

As shown in figure 1, a beam of particles is fired at a stationary target. The resulting nuclei from this collision are highly unstable, and decay almost immediatebly into more stable daughter nuclei. During this decay, charged particles are emitted, which curve in the magnetic field within the detector (in this case, the field is pointing out of the page). Each of these decay particles are collected by the detector and their energies are measured, producing the graph shown in figure 2. What type of decay are the unstable nuclei undergoing?
A) α decay
B) β- decay
C) β+ decay
D) γ decay

A radioactive sample has an activity of 1.5x10 8 Bq when it has 2.7x1014 nuclei. What is the half life of this radioactive sample?

After the Chernobyl meltdown in Ukraine in 1986, some 2,000 km 2 of Belarus was covered in cesium-137 with an activity of about 1500 Bq/m2. Cesium-137 decays with a half life of about 30.17 years into Barium-137, which is stable. In 2006, when local physicists collected samples of soil in this part of Belarus to test for radiactivity, what activity of cesium-137 would they measure?

Cesium-137 undergoes β- decay, decaying into barium-137. Measurements of the emitted electrons show that the maximum electron energy is 1.176 MeV. If in some β- decay of cesium-137, the emitted electron has a kinetic energy of 0.284 MeV, what is the energy of the emitted neutrino? Consider the mass of cesium-137 to be 127.528 GeV/c2, the mass of barium-137 to be 127.527 GeV/c2, the mass of the electron to be 0.511 MeV/c2, and the neutrino to be massless.

A radioactive nucleus, X1, decays into a second radioactive nucleus, X 2. The halflife of X1 is 30.4 min, and the halflife of X 2 is 2.5 min. If a radioactive sample begins with 5 g of X 1 and 10 g of X2, how many grams of X 2 will there be after 5 minutes?

Estimate the binding energy of the nucleus 94Be, given the mass of the nucleus is 9.012182 u, the mass of a proton is 1.007276 u, and the mass of a neutron is 1.008665 u. Note that 1 u approximately equal to 9.315x108 eV/c2.

A 2.3 mol sample of radioactive nuclie has a half life of 34.2 days. How long will it take to decrease the mass of this sample by 30%?

A sample of radioactive nuclei has a decay constant of 0.15 1/days. How long will it take mass of this sample to drop by 50%?

U-235 decays in the following series of steps: alpha decay, beta decay, alpha decay, beta decay, alpha decay, alpha decay, alpha decay, alpha decay, beta decay, alpha decay, beta decay. After these 11 decays, the final daughter nuclei are stable. What is the final daughter nucleus? A periodic table has been attached to this problem to help.

What daughter nucleus is produced in each of the following decays?
(a) α decay of 23994Pu
(b) β- decay of 2111Na
(c) β+ decay of 158O

The nucleus 198O undergoes β- decay. How many neutrons are there in the nucleus that is produced by this decay?

The nucleus 23092U undergoes α-decay with a half-life of 20.8 days. How many alpha particles are emitted per second by a sample that contains 8.0 g of 23092U?

Consider the nuclear fusion reaction 31H + 21H → 42He + 10n. The atomic masses involved are as follows:
M(42He) = 4.0026 u M( 31H) = 3.0160 u
M(21H) = 2.0141 u M( 10n) = 1.0087 u
How many reactions per second must take place in order to generate 6.0 MW of power? (recall: 1 W = 1 J/s)

The atomic mass of a neutral 178O atom is 16.999132 u. Calculate the binding energy of the 178O nucleus, given the mass of a proton is 1.007276 u, and the mass of a neutron is 1.008665 u. Note that 1 u approximately equal to 9.315x108 eV/c2. Express your result in MeV.

A portion of Table 30.2 Atomic Masses of Light Elements from the textbook is reproduced below. Use the information in the table to calculate the total binding energy of the nucleus 42He.

The nucleus 4720Ca is a B- emitter with a half-life of 4.5 days. How many neutrons are in the daughter nucleus that is produced by this decay?

The nucleus 4720Ca is a B- emitter with a half-life of 4.5 days. If a sample contains 8.0 g of this isotope, how many B- particles will be emitted per second by the sample?

The gold nucleus 19879Au undergoes α-decay with a half-life of 2.70 days. How many neutrons are there in the daughter nucleus that is produced by this decay?

The gold nucleus 19879Au undergoes α-decay with a half-life of 2.70 days. What is the activity in Bq (decays/sec) of a sample that contains 5.0 grams of 19879Au nuclei?

The mass of a neutral 21H atom is 2.014101 u. Calculate the binding energy of the 21H nucleus in MeV.

The nucleus 3010Ne has a mass of 30.0192 u. (This is the mass of the nucleus, not the mass of the neutral atom.) What is its binding energy?

The nucleus 22Na undergoes B+ decay with a half life of 2.6 years (note: 1 year = 3.2 x 107 seconds). You start out with a sample of 22Na with an activity of 3.0 x 10 4 Bq. What is the number of 22Na atoms in your initial sample?

The nucleus 22Na undergoes B+ decay with a half life of 2.6 years (note: 1 year = 3.2 x 107 seconds). You start out with a sample of 22Na with an activity of 3.0 x 10 4 Bq. After two half lives (5.2 years), what is the activity of your sample?Ans. |ΔN/Δt| = ?

Consider the nuclear fusion reaction 31H + 21H → 42He + 10n. The atomic masses involved are as follows:M(42He) = 4.0026 u M( 31H) = 3.0160 uM(21H) = 2.0141 u M( 10n) = 1.0087 uWhat is the Q-value of the reaction?

Identify the unknown isotope X in the following decay.X → 30Si + e+(a) 32S(b) 30P(c) 35Cl(d) 31P

Identify the unknown isotope X in the following decay.24Mg → X + γ(a) 24Na(b) 23Na(c) 24Mg(d) 26Al

A hydrogen atom has a diameter of approximately 1.06 ✕ 10-10 m, as defined by the diameter of the spherical electron cloud around the nucleus. The hydrogen nucleus has a diameter of approximately 2.40 ✕ 10-15 mFor a scale model, represent the diameter of the hydrogen atom by the length of an American football field (100 yards = 300 ft) and determine the diameter of the nucleus in millimeters.

1. An element of atomic number 88 decays radioactively to anelement of atomic number 82.Which of the following emissions achieve this result?one alpha particle and one beta particlethree alpha particlesone alpha particlesix beta particles2. An element of atomic number 82 and massnumber 214 decays radioactively to an element of atomic number 82and mass number 210.Which of the following emissionsachieve this result?four beta particlestwo beta particles and one alpha particletwo alpha particlesone alpha particle

1. Give the nuclear symbol, including superscript and subscript, for each of the following.• Alpha particle• Beta particle• Gamma ray2. Which type of radiation has a negative charge?A. alphaB. betaC. gamma3. Which type of radiation is pure energy?A. alphaB. betaC. gamma4. Which type of radiation has the most massive particles?A. alphaB. betaC. gamma

In one type of mass spectrometer, ions having the same velocity move through a uniform magnetic field. The spectrometer is being used to distinguish 12 C+ and 14 C+ ions that have the same charge. The 12 C+ ions move in a circle of diameter 25 cm.a. What is the diameter of the orbit of 14C+ ions?b. What is the ratio of the frequencies of revolution for the two types of ions?

Part AAssume that an average city uses about 8.5x 1013 J of energy in a day.A typical nuclear power plant converts 0.01% of the mass of its fuel into energy through nuclear reactions. How much fuel would be needed to power an average city for one day?Express the mass of fuel needed in kilograms to two significant figures.Part BA fission-based nuclear bomb (such as those used in World WarII) uses the same nuclear reactions and an amount of fuel similar to what you calculated in Part A. However, by allowing an uncontrolled chain reaction to occur, all of the bomb's energy can be released in about 1.0 x 10-6s.What is the average power Pavg of such a nuclear bomb?

Part AAn isotope of potassium with half-life of roughly one billion years is often used in radioactive dating. This isotope decays through electron capture, the process of drawing an electron into the nucleus. What is the chemical symbol for the element form this process? The equation for the reaction is 4019K + 0-1e → ?Part BThe reaction energy of a particular reaction is the amount of energy released by the reaction. It is found by determining the differences in mass between the reactants and products and then use E=mc2 to convert the lost mass into the released energy. Look again at the equation for the decay of radium (Ra), given in the introduction (22286Rn → AZX + 42He). Use the following table of masses to determine the reaction energy of this reaction.

In each of the parts of this question, a nucleus undergoes a nuclear decay. Determine the resulting nucleus in each case.Part A2211 Na undergoes beta-plus decay. Determine the resulting nucleus.Part B9843 Tc undergoes gamma decay. Determine the resulting nucleus.

In each of the parts of this question, a nucleus undergoes a nuclear decay. Determine the resulting nucleus in each case.Part A22789 Ac undergoes alpha decay. Determine the resulting nucleus.Part B21183 Bi undergoes beta-minus decay. Determine the resulting nucleus.

The magnitude of the charge of the neutron is A. much greater than the charge of the proton. B. about the same as that of the proton. C. exactly the same as the charge of the proton. D. zero. E. much less than the charge of the proton.

It has been found that the radii of most nuclei are well approximated by the equation R=R0A1/3, where R0=1.2x10-15 m is an experimentally determined constant. Because the mass of a nucleon (a proton or a neutron) is close to one atomic mass unit (1u), the nucleon number A is sometimes called the mass number.Part AWhat is the approximate radius R of 20882Pb?Express your answer in meters to two significant figures.R = ____ mPart BAssuming that each nucleus is roughly spherical and that its mass is roughly equal to A (in atomic mass units u), what is the density ρ of a nucleus with nucleon number A?Express your answer in terms of A, R0, and π.

To understand the notation and basic quantities involved in nuclear physics.Nuclear physics borrows the symbols for elements from chemistry. However, knowing which element we are dealing with only tells us one of the numbers important to nuclear physics. When referring to a specific nucleus, we use the following notation:5626Fe.The superscript, 56 in this case, denotes the total number of nucleons (protons and neutrons) in the nucleus. This is called the nucleon number and is given the symbol A. The subscript, 26 in this case, is the number of protons in the nucleus. This is called the atomic number and is given the symbol Z. An atom's atomic number determines which element the atom is, in this case Fe (iron). Another important number characterizing an atom is the neutron number N. Since A is the total number of nucleons in the nucleus, the neutron number may be found from the equation A=Z+N. Solving for N gives N=A - Z. Nuclei with the same atomic number but different neutron numbers are called isotopes. Isotopes are often written in a form such as "iron-56."Part AWhat is the atomic number Z of 73Li? Express your answer as an integer. (protons).Part BWhat is the nucleon A number of carbon-14? Express your answer as an integer. (Nucleons).Part CWhat is the neutron number N of 5626Fe?Express your answer as an integer.

How do the nuclei of different isotopes of an element vary? a. Isotopes of an element have nuclei with the same number of protons, but a different number of neutrons. b. Isotopes of an element have nuclei with the same number of protons and the same number of neutrons. c. Isotopes of an element have nuclei with a different number of protons, but the same number of neutrons. d. Isotopes of an element have nuclei with a different number of protons, but the same number of electrons.

A. Calculate (in MeV) the binding energy per nucleon for 12C.B. Calculate (in MeV) the binding energy per nucleon for 13C.C. Which is more tightly bound?

The nuclear mass of 32S is 31.9633 amu. Calculate the binding energy per nucleon for 32S.

When a nucleus of 235U undergoes fission, it breaks into two smaller, more tightly bound fragments.1) Calculate the binding energy per nucleon for 235U? 2) Calculate the binding energy per nucleon for the fission product 137Cs?

Calculate the binding energy per nucleon for 4He___________MeV/nucleon

Calculate the binding energy per nucleon for 59Co__________ MeV/nucleon

Calculate the binding energy per nucleon for 238U___________MeV/nucleon

Calculate the binding energy per nucleon for each of the following nuclei. 9Be___________MeV/nucleon

Calculate the average binding energy per nucleon of 56:26 Fe expressed in MeV/nucleon.

Which of these subshell designations are possible which are impossible?A. 2p, 1f, 3sB. 1d and 1p

One of the waste products of a nuclear reactor is plutonium-239 (239Pu). This nucleus is radioactive and decays by splitting into a helium-4 nucleus and a uranium-235 nucleus (4He + 235U), the latter of which is also radioactive and will itself decay some time later. The energy emitted in the plutonium decay is 8.40×10-13 J and is entirely converted to kinetic energy of the helium and uranium nuclei. The mass of the helium nucleus is 6.68×107 kg, while that of the uranium is 3.92×10-25 kg (note that the ratio of the masses is 4 to 235). (a) Calculate the velocities of the two nuclei, assuming the plutonium nucleus is originally at rest.(b) How much kinetic energy does each nucleus carry away? Note that the data given here are accurate to three digits only

Which of the following quantities are conserved during radioactive decay?Select all that apply.a) electric chargeb) energyc) massd) angular momentume) linear momentumf) nucleon number

For this question consider the figure to the right shows an energy level diagram for a certain atom (not hydrogen). Several transitions are shown and are labeled by letters. a.) Which transition corresponds to the absorption of the photon with the longest wavelength? b.) Which transition corresponds to the absorption of the photon with the shortest wavelength?

For this question consider the figure to the right shows an energy level diagram for a certain atom (not hydrogen). Several transitions are shown and are labeled by letters.a.) Which transition corresponds to the absorption of a 413 nm photon? b.) Which transition corresponds to the emission of a 248 nm photon?

The following nuclei are observed to decay by emitting an α particle: 239/94Pu.Part AWrite out the decay process for 239/94Pu.Part BDetermine the energy released in this reaction.

The following nuclei are observed to decay by emitting an α particle: 212/84Po Part AWrite out the decay process for 212/84Po.Part BDetermine the energy released in this reaction. Be sure to take into account the mass of the electrons associated with the neutral atoms.

Identify the unknown isotope X in the following decay.234U → X + α.(a) 235U(b) 230Th(c) 228Th(d) 239Pu

What particle is emitted in the radioactive decay 2714Si → 2713Al + ?What particle is emitted in the radioactive decay ?

Which of the following choices lists a pair of isotopes?A. 146C and 147NB. 32He and 63LiC. 157N and 168OD. 31H and 21H

The amount of meat in prehistoric diets can be determined by measuring the ratio of the isotopes nitrogen-15 to nitrogen-14 in bone from human remains. Carnivores concentrate 15N, so this ratio tells archaeologists how much meat was consumed by ancient people. Suppose you use a velocity selector (Figure 1) to obtain singly ionized (missing one electron) atoms of speed 513 km/s and want to bend them within a uniform magnetic field of 0.510 T. The measured masses of these isotopes are 2.35×10-26 kg (14N) and 2.45×10-26 kg (15N).Find the separation of the 14N and 15N isotopes at the detector.Express your answer with the appropriate units.s = ___

(a) Calculate (in MeV) the total binding energy for 40K. Express your answer using four significant figures.(b) Calculate (in MeV) the binding energy per nucleon for 40K. Express your answer using three significant figures.

(a) Calculate (in MeV) the total binding energy for 40Ar. Express your answer using four significant figures.(b) Calculate (in MeV) the binding energy per nucleon for 40Ar. Express your answer using three significant figures.

What is the Q value for the reaction 9Be + α → 12C + n?a. 5.7 MeV b. 8.4 MeV c. 4.2 MeV d. 7.3 MeV e. 6.2 MeV

Nuclear reactors generate power by harnessing the energy from nuclear fission. In a fission reaction, uranium-235 absorbs a neutron, bringing it into a highly unstable state as uranium-236. This state almost immediately breaks apart into two smaller fragments, releasing energy. One typical reaction is 235 92U+10n→ 140 54Xe+9438Sr+210n, where 10n indicates a neutron. In this problem, assume that all fission reactions are of this kind. In fact, many different fission reactions go on inside a reactor, but all have similar reaction energies, so it is reasonable to calculate with just one. The products of this reaction are unstable and decay shortly after fission, releasing more energy. In this problem, you will ignore the extra energy contributed by these secondary decays. You will need the following mass data: mass of 235 92U=235.04393u, mass of 140 54Xe=139.92144u, mass of 9438Sr=93.91523u, and mass of 10n=1.008665u.PART A: What is the reaction energy Q of this reaction? Use c2=931.5MeV/u.PART B:Using fission, what mass m of uranium-235 would be necessary to supply all of the energy that the United States uses in a year, roughly 1.0 x 1019J?Express your answer in kilograms to two significant figures.

Consider a fusion reaction in which a proton fuses with a neutron to form a deuterium nucleus. How much energy is released in this reaction? (The mass of the deuterium nucleus is 2.01355u). Answer in MeV.

In parts A and B consider the decay of radon by alpha particle emission:222 86Rn→X+42He.Part AWhat is the nucleon number of the element X?Part BWhat is the atomic number (nuclear charge) of the element X?Part CWhat is the emitted particle X?

Pure silicon contains approximately 1.0x 1016 free electrons per cubic meter.(a) Referring to the table above, calculate the mean free time ? for silicon at room temperature.(b) Your answer in part (a) is much greater than the mean free time for copper. Why, then, does pure silicon have such a high resistivity compared to copper?

A container holds a pure sample of a radioactive substance with a half-life of 2 hours.Which of the following statements are true?a) After 1 hour, less than 50% of the original atoms in the container will have decayed.b) After 1 hour, more than 50% of the original atoms in the container will have decayed.c) After 2 hours, 50% of the original atoms in the container will have decayed.d) After 4 hours, 25% of the original atoms will have decayed.e) After 4 hours, the total number of atoms in the container will be reduced by 75%.

The nuclear mass of 141 Ba is 140.883 amu. Calculate the Binding energy per nucleon for 141 Ba.In J/Nucleon

Some rocks and minerals are not stable at the surface because they:A. are exposed to waterB. formed in high-temperature environmentsC. formed in high-pressure environmentsD. are exposed to oxygenE. all of these

Which of the following statements are true concerning a stable nucleus?Check all that apply.A. There is a limit to the size of a stable nucleus because of the short range of the strong nuclear force.B. A stable nucleus contains a larger number of neutrons than protons.C. There is no limit to the size of a stable nucleus because of the great strength of the strong nuclear force.D. A stable nucleus contains nearly equal numbers of protons and neutrons.E. A stable nucleus contains a larger number of protons than neutrons.

What particle is emitted in the radioactive decay 23892U → 23490Th + ?What particle is emitted in the radioactive decay ?

It is known that a radioactive sample undergoes three different types of radioactive decay and emits three different types of particles: ? decay (helium nuclei), ?? decay (electrons), and ? decay (photons). As shown in the figure, these particles are emitted into a region of space with a uniform magnetic field directed out the page. The particles follow the paths indicated, and none of them bends either into or out of the page. Which type of radioactive decay would produce a decay particle that would move along path A?

A hydrogen atom has a diameter of approximately 1.06 ✕ 10-10 m, as defined by the diameter of the spherical electron cloud around the nucleus. The hydrogen nucleus has a diameter of approximately 2.40 ✕ 10-15 mThe atom is how many times larger in volume than its nucleus?

What is the average density of the sun? Express answer in kg/m3

Identify the unknown isotope X in the following decay.32P→ X + e−A. 32SB. 30PC. 35ClD. 31P

Calculate the binding energy per nucleon for 12C. (Use the table of atomic masses as necessary).

Calculate the binding energy per nucleon for 14N. (Use the table of atomic masses as necessary)

Calculate the binding energy per nucleon for 4He. (Use the table of atomic masses as necessary.)

Nuclear reactors generate power by harnessing the energy from nuclear fission. In a fission reaction, uranium-235 absorbs a neutron, bringing it into a highly unstable state as uranium-236. This state almost immediately breaks apart into two smaller fragments, releasing energy. One typical reaction is 235 92U+10n→ 140 54Xe+9438Sr+210n, where 10n indicates a neutron. In this problem, assume that all fission reactions are of this kind. In fact, many different fission reactions go on inside a reactor, but all have similar reaction energies, so it is reasonable to calculate with just one. The products of this reaction are unstable and decay shortly after fission, releasing more energy. In this problem, you will ignore the extra energy contributed by these secondary decays. You will need the following mass data: mass of 235 92U=235.04393u, mass of 140 54Xe=139.92144u, mass of 9438Sr=93.91523u, and mass of 10n=1.008665u.Using fission, what mass m of uranium-235 would be necessary to supply all of the energy that the United States uses in a year, roughly 1.0 x 1019J, given that reaction energy, Q = 185 MeV?Express your answer in kilograms to two significant figures.

A gold nucleus has a radius of 7.3x10-15 m and a charge of +79e. Through what voltage must a particle with its charge of +2e be accelerated so that it has just enough energy to reach a distance of 2.0*10-14 m from the surface of a gold nucleus? (Assume the gold nucleus stays stationary and serves as a point charge).

What particle is emitted in the radioactive decay 7433As → 7434Se + ?What particle is emitted in the radioactive decay?

Enter your friends' email addresses to invite them:

We invited your friends!

Join **thousands** of students and gain free access to **55 hours** of Physics videos that follow the topics **your textbook** covers.