Ch 22: The Second Law of ThermodynamicsWorksheetSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch 01: Intro to Physics; Units
Ch 02: 1D Motion / Kinematics
Ch 03: Vectors
Ch 04: 2D Motion (Projectile Motion)
Ch 05: Intro to Forces (Dynamics)
Ch 06: Friction, Inclines, Systems
Ch 07: Centripetal Forces & Gravitation
Ch 08: Work & Energy
Ch 09: Conservation of Energy
Ch 10: Momentum & Impulse
Ch 11: Rotational Kinematics
Ch 12: Rotational Inertia & Energy
Ch 13: Torque & Rotational Dynamics
Ch 14: Rotational Equilibrium
Ch 15: Angular Momentum
Ch 16: Periodic Motion
Ch 17: Waves & Sound
Ch 18: Fluid Mechanics
Ch 19: Heat and Temperature
Ch 20: Kinetic Theory of Ideal Gasses
Ch 21: The First Law of Thermodynamics
Ch 22: The Second Law of Thermodynamics
Ch 23: Electric Force & Field; Gauss' Law
Ch 24: Electric Potential
Ch 25: Capacitors & Dielectrics
Ch 26: Resistors & DC Circuits
Ch 27: Magnetic Fields and Forces
Ch 28: Sources of Magnetic Field
Ch 29: Induction and Inductance
Ch 30: Alternating Current
Ch 31: Electromagnetic Waves
Ch 32: Geometric Optics
Ch 33: Wave Optics
Ch 35: Special Relativity
Ch 36: Particle-Wave Duality
Ch 37: Atomic Structure
Ch 38: Nuclear Physics
Ch 39: Quantum Mechanics

Concept #1: The Carnot Cycle and Maximum Theoretical Efficiency


Hey guys, in this video we're going to cover the carnot cycle and the maximum possible theoretical efficiency for an engine. Alright let's get to it remember no heat engine can convert all of the heat from a hot reservoir into usable work so we have some hot reservoir we have some engine we have some cold reservoir whatever heat flows into the engine from the hot reservoir leads to the production of work but it cannot all be converted into work some heat has to be released into the cold reservoir in order for heat to flow some of that heat has to be returned to the cold reservoir otherwise the engine is not possible the efficiency of any heat engine remember guys is a measurements of how much usable work right how much of this, you can pull out of the heat that's input right out of this and the more efficient an engine is the more usable work for a given heat input the carnot cycle or the carnot engine is theoretically the most efficient engine possible between two reservoirs so if you have some hot reservoir and you have some cold reservoir the most efficient engine you can put between them is going to be a carnot engine that's going to get the most work out of any pair of reservoirs. Let me minimise myself the carnot cycle which powers a carnot engine is composed of four steps, step one right here is an adiabatic expansion at the temperature of the hot reservoir right at this temperature, step two right here is an adiabatic expansion so we have two expansions from the temperature of the hot reservoir to the temperature of the cold reservoir. This is how we're switching temperatures, step three right here is an isothermal compression so we're going backwards now we're compressing the gas at the temperature of that cold reservoir and finally step four is another compression this time adiabatic returning us from the temperature of the cold reservoir to the temperature of the hot reservoir, so we get back to our starting point because this is a cyclic process.

In a carnot cycle heat is transferred during only two of the steps right two of the steps are adiabatic. So heat absolutely cannot flow during those steps but the other two steps the isothermal steps heat can flow in step one heat is added into the system. That's how the gas expanded it needed some energy to increase its volume and that was provided by the heat added to the system. In step three heat is removed from the system and dumped into the cold reservoir right that's this heat that has to exist carnot cycle can have that heat equal to zero and as I said steps two and four are adiabatic so heat is not transferred in those steps alright the carnot engine is the theoretically most efficient engine you can ever place between any pair of hot and cold reservoirs and that efficiency is 1 minus the temperature of the cold reservoir divided by the temperature of the hot reservoir right and this is the maximum possible efficiency for any engine between a hot reservoir at T.H and a cold reservoir at T.C so no matter what type you use if you put it between the same pair of reservoirs the carnot engine is always going to output more work than any other possible engine. A car engine is designing a car engines design is aimed at getting as close to the theoretical maximum efficiency as possible say the engine is designed to operate when the engine compartment is cooled to room temperature 27 degree Celsius by the radiator inside the engine compartment. What is the least percentage of heat wasted or wasted heat the designers could hope to get? The least amount of wasted heat note that gasoline ignites at around 260 degrees Celsius so if we want the least wasted. What does that mean that means we need the most efficient.Right the designers were targeting the theoretical maximum efficiency which is just the carnot efficiency

I don't remember how to spell efficiency, there we go sorry about that. The most efficient possible engine is the carnot engine and the highest the largest efficiency possible is the carnot efficiency so that maximum efficiency is going to be 1 minus the temperature of the cold reservoir divided by the temperature of the hot reservoir well N an engine right in a car's engine what's the hot reservoir and what is the cold reservoir at least what's those temperatures the cold reservoir is the temperature of the environment that that engine sits in that's what's releasing the heat into and we were told that that environment inside the hood of the car is 27 degrees Celsius Now this is not a difference in temperature remember this is one temperature divided by another you can only use Celsius and Kelvin interchangeably when it's a difference in temperature since this is not a difference we have to convert this into Kelvin so we add 273 now what is the temperature of a hot reservoir well the hottest that engine's ever going to get is the temperature of the gases ignited at and that happens to be 260 degrees Celsius so the hot reservoirs is going to be 260 Celsius but we have to convert it to Kelvin so we have to add another 273 alright plugging this into a calculator we get 0.437 so that maximum efficiency is 43.7% so what does that mean about the least percentage of heat wasted. The minimum wasted percentage is just going to be 100% minus the efficiency which is 56.3 % so even theoretically the minimum amount of heat that's wasted in this engine is over 56% that means that no engine designed could ever be better than 56% wasted energy as the minimum. That wraps up this discussion on the carnot cycle and the theoretical minimum sorry the theoretical maximum efficiency. Thanks for watching guys.