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Electron Configuration | 27 mins | 0 completed | Learn Summary |

Paramagnetic and Diamagnetic | 10 mins | 0 completed | Learn Summary |

Effective Nuclear Charge | 25 mins | 0 completed | Learn |

The Spin Quantum Number | 9 mins | 0 completed | Learn |

Orbital Shapes | 5 mins | 0 completed | Learn Summary |

Periodic Trends: Atomic Radius | 4 mins | 0 completed | Learn |

Periodic Trends: Ionic Radius | 6 mins | 0 completed | Learn Summary |

Periodic Trends: Ionization Energy | 20 mins | 0 completed | Learn Summary |

Periodic Trends: Electron Affinity | 12 mins | 0 completed | Learn Summary |

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Orbital Diagrams |

Coulomb's Law |

Quantum Numbers |

Periodic Trends |

Periodic Trends: Metallic Character |

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Atomic Radius |

Ionization Energy |

The fourth quantum number, m_{s}, determines the spin of an electron within an atomic orbital.

Whereas the first 3 quantum numbers describe the atomic orbital where you find the electron, the final quantum number, m_{s}, describes spin the electron possesses.

The **Pauli Exclusion Principle** implies that two electrons in the same atomic orbital cannot spin in the same direction so as to avoid having the same four quantum numbers.

Example #1: State the electron configuration of boron and list the four quantum numbers of the 1** ^{st}** and the 5

0 of 3 completed

Concept #1: Spin Quantum Number Part 1

Concept #2: Spin Quantum Number Part 2

Example #1: Spin Quantum Number

A certain orbital of the hydrogen atom has n = 4 and l = 2.What are the possible values of ms for the orbital?

In the experiment shown schematically below , a beam of neutral atoms is passed through a magnetic field. Atoms that have unpaired electrons are deflected in different directions in the magnetic field depending on the value of the electron spin quantum number. In the experiment illustrated, we envision that a beam of hydrogen atoms splits into two beams.The relevant experiment was first performed by Otto Stern and Walter Gerlach in 1921. They used a beam of Ag atoms in the experiment. By considering the electron configuration of a silver atom, explain why the single beam splits into two beams.

How many electrons can have the following quantum numbersa) n=3, l=1, ms=1/2 b) n=4, m l = -1

What is the smallest acceptable value for the missing quantum number?n = ?, ℓ = 2, mℓ = 0, ms = +1/2A) 4B) 3C) 1D) 5E) 2

Which of the following set is an acceptable set of quantum numbers? a. n = 0, l = 0, m l = 0, m s = +1/2b. n = 2, l = 1, m l = 2, m s = −1/2c. n = 2, l = 0, m l = 0, m s = 1d. n = 1, l = 1, m l = 0, m s = −1/2e. n = 3, l = 1, m l = −1, m s = −1/2

Which set of quantum numbers is not possible?a) n = 2, l = 1, m l, = +1, m s = –1/2b) n = 3, l = 2, m l = +1, m s = +1/2c) n = 4, l = 4, m l = –1, m s = +1/2d) n = 5, l = 2, m l = 2, m s = –1/2

For an electron that has quantum numbers n = 3 and m l = 2, which of the following is true?A) it must have the quantum number m s = + 1/2B) it must have the quantum number l = 1C) it may have the quantum numbers, l = 0, 1, 2D) it must have the quantum number l = 2E) none of these answers apply to this electron

Which of the following represents an impossible set of quantum numbers for an electron in an atom?a. 2, 1, -1, -1/2 b. 1, 0, 0, +1/2c. 3, 3, 3, +1/2 d. 5, 4, -3, +1/2 e. 5, 4, -3, -1/2

Which one of the following represents a 2p electron in an atom?a. 2, 1, -1, +1/2b. 2, 1, 0, 0c. 2, 2, 0, -1/2d. 2, 0, 1, -1/2 e. 2, 0, 2, +1/2

Which of the following set of quantum numbers (ordered n, ℓ, m ℓ, ms) are possible for an electron in an atom? Check all that apply.a. 5, 3, 0, 1/2b. 2, 1, 0, 1/2c. 3, 1, 0, -1/2d. 2, 1, 0, 1e. 2, 1, -2, 1/2f. 3, 4, 0, 1/2g. 5, 3, 4, 1/2h. -1, 0, 0, -1/2

Part AWhat is the only possible value of ml for an electron in an s orbital?Express your answer numerically.Part BWhat are the possible values of m l for an electron in a d orbital?Express your answer numerically with sequential values separated by commas.Part CWhich of the following set of quantum numbers (ordered n, l, m l, ms) are possible for an electron in an atom?

Which one of the following statements is false?a. If an electron quantum number n=2, it may be a p sublevel.b. If an electron has ℓ=1, it must be in a p sublevel.c. Two electrons in the same atom may have quantum numbers, n , l , mℓ , ms of 2,1,-1,½, and 2,-1,- 1,½.d. Two electrons in the same atom may not have quantum numbers of 2,1,-1,-½ and 2,1,-1,-½.e. If an electron has n=1, it must be in an s orbital

Which of the following set of quantum numbers (ordered n,l,ml,ms) are possible for an electron in an atom? Check all that apply.a. 3, 4, 0, 1/2b. 3, 2, 0, -1/2c. 3, 2, 2, -1/2d. 3, 1, 0, -1/2e. -3, 2, 2, -1/2f. 4, 3, 4, -1/2g. 2, 1, 0, 1h. 2, 1, -2, 1/2

Which of the following sets of the four quantum numbers n, l, m l, and ms decribes one of the outermost electrons in a ground-state barium atom?a) 6, 1, 1, ½b) 6, 0, 1, -½c) 6, 0, 0, -½d) 6, 1, 0, ½e) 6, 2, 1, -½

Which set of quantum numbers is correct and consistent with n = 4?(A) l = 3 m l = -3 ms = +1/2(B) l = 4 m l = +2 ms = -1/2(C) l = 2 m l = +3 ms = +1/2(D) l = 3 m l = -3 ms = +1

How many electrons can have the following quantum sets? a. In the 7 th shell of an atom (n = 7)b. n = 5, ℓ = 2c. n = 6, ℓ = 3, m ℓ = -2d. n = 4, ℓ = 2, m ℓ = 0 , m s = -1/2e. n = 4, m ℓ = -1f. n = 5, m ℓ = 0 , m s = 1/2g. n = 9, ℓ = 4, m s = -1/2h. n = 2, m s = 1/2

Each of the following sets of quantum numbers gives information on a specific orbital. Find the error in each. a) n = 4, l = 0 , m l = 1, m s = -1/2b) n = 5, l = 2 , m l = - 1, m s = 1c) n = 7, l = 7, m l = - 5, m s = -1/2d) n = 22, l = 5, m l = - 6, m s = 1/2

Fluorine can gain an electron to become fluoride (F−). What is the quantum number (following the numbering conventions) that describes the electron that was gained by fluorine.(a) n = 2, ℓ = 0, m ℓ = 1, ms = -1⁄2(b) n = 2, ℓ = 1, m ℓ = 0, ms = -1⁄2(c) n = 3, ℓ = 1, m ℓ = 1, ms = +1⁄2(d) n = 2, ℓ = 1, m ℓ = 1, ms = -1⁄2(e) n = 2, ℓ = 1, m ℓ = -1, ms = -1⁄2

Identify the orbital represented by the quantum numbers given below:n = 3 l = 1 m l = 0 m s = -1/2 Now select the electron represented by the quantum numbers.

Which of the following represents a set of quantum number for valence electron of Chlorine?A. (3,1,0,-1)B. (3, 2, 0, -1/2)C. (3,0,2, 1/2)D. (3,1,-1, -1/2)E. (3,1,0,0)

How many of the following statements are false?I. The principal quantum number n is related to the size of an orbital.II. s, p, d, f represent orbitals with different azimuthal quantum numbers.III. The magnetic quantum number can have values of +½ or -½.IV. The spin quantum number is related to the orientation of an orbital.V. The electron density at a point is proportional to Ψ 2 at that point.A. 0B. 1C. 2D. 3E. 4

Which of the following is not a permitted combination of quantum numbers?1. n = 4, ℓ = 2, mℓ = 1, m s = 1/22. n = 3, ℓ = 0, mℓ = 0, m s = 1/23. n = 4, ℓ = 3, mℓ = 3, m s = − 1/24. n = 2, ℓ = 1, mℓ = −2, m s = 1/25. n = 3, ℓ = 0, mℓ = 0, m s = − 1/2

Which of the following sets of quantum numbers are not allowed? For each incorrect set, state why it is incorrect.a. n = 3, ℓ = 3, mℓ = 0, ms = -1/2b. n = 4, ℓ = 3, mℓ = 2, ms = -1/2c. n = 4, ℓ = 1, mℓ = 1, ms = +1/2d. n = 2, ℓ = 1, mℓ = -1, ms = -1e. n = 5, ℓ = -4, mℓ = 2, ms = +1/2f. n = 3, ℓ = 1, mℓ = 2, ms = -1/2

Imagine a universe in which the value of ms can be +1/2, 0, and -1/2. Assuming that all the other quantum numbers can take only the values possible in our world and that the Pauli exclusion principle applies, give the following.the new electronic configuration of neon

An experiment called the Stern–Gerlach experiment helped
establish the existence of electron spin. In this experiment,
a beam of silver atoms is passed through a magnetic field,
which deflects half of the silver atoms in one direction and
half in the opposite direction. The separation between the
two beams increases as the strength of the magnetic field
increases.

What are the possible quantum numbers for the last electron in zinc?n = ___________l = ___________ml = __________ms = ___________

Suppose that the spin quantum number, ms, could have three allowed values instead of two.What would be the number of elements in the first row of the periodic table?

The quantum number ______ defines the ________________ of an orbital. Choose which is correct.a. n defines the size of the orbitalb. ms defines the spin of the electronc. defines the shape of the orbitald. defines the orientation in space of the orbitale. all the above are correct.

Which of the following set of quantum numbers is not allowed?a. n = 1, l = 0, m l = 0, ms = −1/2b. n = 3, l = 2, m l = −1, ms = 1/2c. n = 5, l = 2, m l = −3, ms = −1/2d. n = 4, l = 3, m l = −2, ms = 1/2

Select the acceptable sets of quantum numbers in an atom.a.) (2, 2, 1,+1/2)b.) (3,2,1,1)c.) (1, 0, 1/2, 1/2)d) (4, 3, -2, +1/2)e.) (3, 0, 0, +1/2)

Electron spin. The electron behaves as if it were spinning about an axis, thereby generating a magnetic field whose direction depends on the direction of spin. The two directions for the magnetic field correspond to the two possible values for the spin quantum number, ms.From this figure, why are there only
two possible values for the spin
quantum number?

Suppose that the spin quantum number, ms, could have three allowed values instead of two.What would be the number of elements in the second row of the periodic table?

Find all four quantum numbers (n, l, ml, and ms) for the selected electron below. Select the correct answer for each quantum number.

Imagine a universe in which the value of ms can be +1/2, 0, and -1/2. Assuming that all the other quantum numbers can take only the values possible in our world and that the Pauli exclusion principle applies, give the following.The number of unpaired electrons in fluorine.

Part B. Identify the sets of quantum numbers that describe all the electrons in the ground state of a neutral beryllium atom, Be. Each set is ordered (n, ℓ, mℓ , ms).Every electron in an atom is described by a unique set of four quantum numbers: n, ℓ, mℓ, and ms. The principal quantum number, nn, identifies the shell in which the electron is found. The angular momentum quantum number, ℓ, indicates the kind of subshell. The magnetic quantum number, mℓ , distinguishes the orbitals within a subshell. The spin quantum number, msm_s, specifies the electron spin.

A hydrogen atom orbital has n = 5 and ml = -2 .What are the possible values of ms for the orbital?

Choose all possible values of each quantum number for the electron lost when an Ag atom ionizes

Part C. Which of the following set of quantum numbers (ordered nn, l, ml, msm_s) are possible for an electron in an atom?Check all that apply.Quantum numbers can be thought of as labels for an electron. Every electron in an atom has a unique set of four quantum numbers.The principal quantum number nn corresponds to the shell in which the electron is located. Thus nn can therefore be any integer. For example, an electron in the 2p subshell has a principal quantum number of n = 2 because 2p is in the second shell.The azimuthal or angular momentum quantum number l corresponds to the subshell in which the electron is located. s subshells are coded as 0, p subshells as 1, d as 2, and f as 3. For example, an electron in the 2p subshell has l = 1. As a rule, l\ell can have integer values ranging from 0 to n − 1.The magnetic quantum number ml corresponds to the orbital in which the electron is located. Instead of 2px, 2py, and 2pz, the three 2p orbitals can be labeled − 1, 0, and 1, but not necessarily respectively. As a rule, ml can have integer values ranging from −l to +l.The spin quantum number msm_s corresponds to the spin of the electron in the orbital. A value of 1/2 means an "up" spin, whereas −1/2 means a "down" spin.

Part A. Identify which sets of quantum numbers are valid for an electron. Each set is ordered (n, ℓ, mℓ, ms).A) 3,2,0,1/2B) 3,3,-2,-1/2C) 3,2,1,1/2D) 2,2,1,-1/2E) 3,0,0,1/2F) 2,-2,-2,-1/2G) 2,2,1,1/2H) 3,2,1,0I) 0,1,1,-1/2J) 4,3,5,-1/2K) 2,0,0,-1/2L) 4,2,1,1/2Every electron in an atom is described by a unique set of four quantum numbers: n, ℓ, mℓ, and ms. The principal quantum number, nn, identifies the shell in which the electron is found. The angular momentum quantum number, ℓ, indicates the kind of subshell. The magnetic quantum number, mℓ , distinguishes the orbitals within a subshell. The spin quantum number, msm_s, specifies the electron spin.

The maximum number of electrons in an atom that can have the following set of quantum numbers is:n = 4, m l = -3, m s = +1/2(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 6 (e) 10

Which of the following is a possible set of quantum numbers for a 3d electron?a) n=4, l=3, m l=2, ms=-1/2 b) n=3, l=2, m l=0, ms=-1/2c) n=3, l=1, m l=1, ms=+1/2d) n=3, l=3, m l=2, ms=+1/2e) n=3, l=0, m l=0, ms=+1/2

Which of the following is a possible set of quantum numbers?

Imagine a universe in which the value of ms can be +1/2, 0, and -1/2. Assuming that all the other quantum numbers can take only the values possible in our world and that the Pauli exclusion principle applies, give the following.the atomic number of the element with a completed n = 2 shell

List a possible set of four quantum numbers (n, ℓ, mℓ , ms) in order, for the highest energy electron in gallium, Ga. Refer to the periodic table as necessary. Enter four numbers separated by commas (e.g., 3, 2, -2, 1/2).Determine a possible set of quantum numbers for the highest energy electron in a Ga atom. Quantum numbers are used to uniquely identify an electron in an atom. The Pauli exclusion principle states that no two electrons in an atom may have the same set of four quantum numbers.

Give the chemical symbol for the element with the following ground-state electron configuration. [Ne]3s23p3 Symbol: _____________ Write the quantum numbers n and l and select all possible values for ml for each subshell of the element. 3s2 n = _________l = _________ ml = a) -1, 0, +1 b) 0 c) -2, -1, 0, +1, +2 d) -3, -2, -1, 0, +1, +2, +3 3p3 n = ___________ l = _____________ ml = a) -2, -1, 0, +1, +2 b) -1, 0, +1 c) 0 d) -3, -2, -1, 0, +1, +2, +3

In the experiment shown schematically below , a beam of neutral atoms is passed through a magnetic field. Atoms that have unpaired electrons are deflected in different directions in the magnetic field depending on the value of the electron spin quantum number. In the experiment illustrated, we envision that a beam of hydrogen atoms splits into two beams.What do you think would happen if the strength of the magnet were increased?

Identify which sets of quantum numbers are valid for an electron. Each set is ordered(n,l,ml,ms). Select all that apply.3,0, 0,1/20,2,1,-1/23,2,2,1/22,1,0,1/24,3,5,-1/23,1,-1,1/22,2,-1,1/24,3,1,-1/22,2,1,-1/21,-1,-1,-1/23,3,1,1/23,-2,-1,0

The following sets of quantum numbers, listed in the order n, ℓ, mℓ, and ms, were written for the last electrons added to an atom. Identify which sets are valid and classify the others by the rule or principle that is violated.When writing the ground-state electron configuration of a many-electron atom, three main rules must be followed:The aufbau principle: Electrons are added to the lowest energy orbitals availableThe Pauli exclusion principle: No two electrons in an atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers (n, ℓ, mℓ, and ms)Hund's rule: For degenerate orbitals, the lowest energy state is attained when the number of electrons with the same spin is maximized. So for a degenerate set of orbitals, one electron goes into each orbital until all the orbitals of the subshell are half-filled. Once all the orbitals of the subshell are half-filled the pairing of electrons can take place.Note that aufbau is the German word for "building up."

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