All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds

The Simple Gas Laws study the effect of changing pressure, temperature and moles have on the variable of volume. Together all three Simple Gas Laws combine to give the Ideal Gas Law

The Simple Gas Laws

Concept #1: Boyle's Law

Boyle’s Law states that pressure and volume are inversely proportional, which basically means they are opposites, at constant moles and temperature.

Concept #2: Charles Law

Charles Law states that volume and temperature are directly proportional if pressure and moles are constant. So if one is high then the other is high and vice versa. 

Concept #3: Avogadro's Law

Avogadro’s Law states that volume and moles are directly proportional at constant pressure and temperature. So if one is high then the other is high and vice versa. 

Concept #4: Understanding PV = nRT, the Ideal Gas Law

Concept #5: Gay-Lussac's Law

Gay-Lussac’s Law states that pressure and temperature are directly proportional at constant volume and moles. So if one is high then the other is high and vice versa. 

Simple Gas Law Calculations

Sometimes we will be given two of the same variables such as volume, temperature, pressure or moles. In these cases, you will have to learn to manipulate the Ideal Gas Law to isolate the equation you need. 

Example #1: A sample of neon gas occupies 112 mL at 0.567atm. If the temperature remains constant, what is the volume (in L) at 1165 mmHg?  

When manipulating the Ideal Gas Law you want your common set of variables on one side of your equation. 

Example #2: An engineer pumps air at 0 degrees C into a mechanized piston-cylinder engine. If the volume measures 7.18 cm3 what will the new temperature be at 12.3 mL? 

Manipulating the Ideal Gas Law can help us solve questions beyond our understanding of the Simple Gas Laws. 

Practice: A large plastic container holds 47.1 g of water vapor at a pressure of 1.12 atm. What is the new pressure if 12.1 g of water vapor is removed at constant temperature?

If we are not given two of the same variables such as volume, temperature, pressure or moles then we just use the Ideal Gas Law

Practice: A steel tank has a volume of 592 L and is filled with 0.638 kg of hydrogen gas. Calculate the pressure of the gas if the temperature is 82oC.

Ideal Gas Law and Chemical Reactions

Concept #6: Ideal Gas Stoichiometry

We’ve dealt with gases on previous topics such as stoichiometry, where the gas was either a reactant or product. Now we can relate Stoichiometry to the Ideal Gas Law. 

For a stoichiometric question dealing with the Ideal Gas Law just focus on the KNOWN quantities and determine which portion of the ideal Gas Law you need to isolate. 

Example #3: Magnesium reacts with excess hydrochloric acid to form aqueous magnesium chloride and 26.7 mL of hydrogen gas at 25 degrees C and 723 mmHg.

Mg (s) + 2 HCl (aq) → MgCl2 (aq) + H2 (g)

How many grams of magnesium reacted?

When a gas is collected over water the total pressure is the partial pressures of the gas and of water vapor. To determine the correct answer you need to find the partial pressure of only the gas. 

Example #4: Acetylene (C2H2), an important fuel in wielding, is produced in the laboratory when calcium carbide (CaC2) reacts with water:

CaC2 (s) + 2 H2O (l) → C2H2 (g) + Ca(OH)2 (aq)

The pressure of acetylene collected over water is 729 torr while the volume was measured as 629 mL. If at 21 degrees C the vapor pressure of the water is 29 torr, how many grams of acetylene were produced? 

Additional Problems
0.40 g of H2, 20.0 g CO2, and 14.00 g of O2 are placed into a 5.0 L container at 18°C. What is the partial pressure of CO2 gas and what is the total pressure in the container?
Into a 500.0 L container at 18°C are placed 0.40 g of H 2, 20.0 g CO 2 and 14.0 g of O2. What is the partial pressure of H 2?
What is the pressure in atm exerted by a mixture of 1.00 g H 2 and 5.00 g He when the mixture is contained in a volume of 5.00 L at 20.0°C? a) 8.4 b) 7.84 c) 28.8 d) 0.574 e) 7.71   What is the partial pressure in atm exerted by the H 2 in the gaseous mixture described in the previous question? a) no given answer is close b) 0.115 c) 2.4 d) 5.76 e) 1.54
If the pressure exerted by ozone, O 3, in the stratosphere is 3.0 x 10 -3 atm and the temperature is 255 K, how many ozone molecules are in one liter? a. 6.0 x 1018 b. 6.1 x 10 22 c. 8.6 x 1019 d. 1.4 x 1018 e. 2.7 x 10 20
A 55.0 L gas cylinder containing NO and 3.238 mol of N 2 has a total pressure of 2.14 atm at 303 K. What is the mole fraction of NO? A)  4.729               B) 0.683          C) 0.0467           D) 1.491            E) 0.316
A 355 mL container holds 0.146 g of Ne gas and an unknown amount of Ar gas at 35°C, and a total pressure of 626 mmHg. Calculate the number of moles of Ar gas present. a) 7.24 x 10 –3 mol Ar b) 4.34 x 10 –3 mol Ar c) 4.27 x 10 −3 mol Ar d) 1.00 x 10 −2 mol Ar e) 5.79 x 10 −3 mol Ar
 A mixture of 30.0 g ammonia (MW 17 g/mol), 30.0 g oxygen (MW 32 g/mol) and 30.0 g propylene (MN 42 g/mol) occupies 10.0 L at 100.0°C. What is the partial pressure (atm) of the oxygen? a. 2.18 atm b. 8.56 atm c. 5.88 atm d. 2.87 atm e. None of the above
What is the volume occupied by 12.5 g of argon gas at a pressure of 1.05 atm and a temperature of 322 K? Would the volume be different if the sample were 12.5 g of helium (under identical conditions)? 
A gas mixture with a total pressure of 745mmHg contains each of the following gases at the indicated partial pressures: CO2, 125 mmHg; Ar, 214 mmHg; and O2, 187 mmHg. The mixture also contains helium gas. What is the partial pressure of the helium gas? What mass of helium gas is present in a 12.0-L sample of this mixture at 273 K? 
A gas mixture contains 1.25 g N2 and 0.85 g O2 in a 1.55-L container at 18 °C. Calculate the mole fraction and partial pressure of each component in the gas mixture. 
The radius of a xenon atom is 1.310-8 cm. A 100-mL flask is filled with Xe at a pressure of 1.3 atm and a temperature of 276 K .Calculate the fraction of the volume that is occupied by Xe atoms. (Hint: The atoms are spheres.)
A steel container of volume 0.36 L can withstand pressures up to 89 atm before exploding.Find the mass of helium that can be stored in this container at 301 K .
What is the ideal gas law?
Explain why people may experience ear pain after a rapid change in altitude.
Explain why scuba divers should never hold their breath when they ascend to the surface.
Why is it impossible to breathe air through an extra-long snorkel (longer than a couple of meters) while swimming under water?
Review the ideal gas law. Without referring back to the text, use algebra to write the ideal gas law and solve for one of the variables.Using the Ideal Gas Law, solve for pressure.
Naturally found uranium consists of 99.274%, 238U, 0.720% 235U, and 0.006% 233U (by mass). As we have seen, 235U is the isotope that can undergo a nuclear chain reaction. Most of the 235U used in the first atomic bomb was obtained by gaseous diffusion of uranium hexafluoride, UF6(g).What is the mass of UF6 in a 30.0-L vessel of UF6 at a pressure of 690 torr at 360 K?
Assume that a single cylinder of an automobile engine has a volume of 525 cm3 .If the cylinder is full of air at 75 oC and 0.990 atm , how many moles of O2 are present? (The mole fraction of O2 in dry air is 0.2095.)
A gas mixture contains each of the following gases at the indicated partial pressures: N2, 221 torr ; O2, 131 torr ; and He, 131 torr .What mass of each gas is present in a 1.30 -L sample of this mixture at 25.0 oC?
When 0.550 g of neon is added to an 750-cm3 bulb containing a sample of argon, the total pressure of the gases is found to be 1.46 atm at a temperature of 320 K .Find the mass of the argon in the bulb.
A gas mixture contains 1.26 g N2 and 0.86 g O2 in a 1.56-L container at 18 oC.You want to reference (Pages 216 - 222) Section 5.6 while completing this problem.Calculate the partial pressure of N2.
A sample of 3.10 g of SO2 (g) originally in a 5.20-L vessel at 26 oC is transferred to a 12.0-L vessel at 25 oC. A sample of 2.40 g N2 (g) originally in a 2.60-L vessel at 20 oC is transferred to this same 12.0-L vessel.What is the partial pressure of SO2 (g) in the larger container?
A sample of 3.10 g of SO2 (g) originally in a 5.20-L vessel at 26 oC is transferred to a 12.0-L vessel at 25 oC. A sample of 2.40 g N2 (g) originally in a 2.60-L vessel at 20 oC is transferred to this same 12.0-L vessel.What is the partial pressure of N2 (g) in this vessel?
A 1.25 -g sample of dry ice is added to a 765 -mL flask containing nitrogen gas at a temperature of 25.0 oC and a pressure of 735 mm Hg . The dry ice is allowed to sublime (convert from solid to gas) and the mixture is allowed to return to 25.0 oC.What is the total pressure in the flask?
A sample of 3.10 g of SO2 (g) originally in a 5.20-L vessel at 26 oC is transferred to a 12.0-L vessel at 25 oC. A sample of 2.40 g N2 (g) originally in a 2.60-L vessel at 20 oC is transferred to this same 12.0-L vessel.What is the total pressure in the vessel?
Calculate the pressure that CCl4 will exert at 41 oC if 1.20 mol occupies 33.6 L , assuming thatCCl4 obeys the ideal-gas equation;
A 1.3-L container of liquid nitrogen is kept in a closet measuring 1.2 m by 1.2 m by 2.0 m . Assume that the container is completely filled to the top with liquid nitrogen, that the temperature is 25.1 oC, and that the atmospheric pressure is 1.2 atm .Calculate the percent (by volume) of air that would be displaced if all of the liquid nitrogen evaporated into the closet. The closet is ventilated such that the temperature and pressure remain constant through this process. (Liquid nitrogen has a density of 0.807 g/mL.)
A wine-dispensing system uses argon canisters to pressurize and preserve wine in the bottle. An argon canister for the system has a volume of 59.6 mL and contains 30.1 g of argon.Assuming ideal gas behavior, what is the pressure in the canister at 297 K ?
What volume of air contains 12.6 g of oxygen gas at 273 K and 1.00 atm?
What is the pressure in a 13.0-L cylinder filled with 0.500 mol of nitrogen gas at a temperature of 315 K ?
What is the pressure in a 21.0-L cylinder filled with 40.1 g of oxygen gas at a temperature of 331 K ?
A piece of dry ice (solid carbon dioxide) with a mass of 28.5 g sublimes (converts from solid to gas) into a large balloon.Assuming that all of the carbon dioxide ends up in the balloon, what is the volume of the balloon at 23 oC and a pressure of 746 mmHg ?
Room temperature is often assumed to be 25oC. Calculate the molar volume of an ideal gas at 25oC and 1 atm pressure.
A 118-mL flask is evacuated and found to have a mass of 97.129 g. When the flask is filled with 768 torr of helium gas at 35 °C, it has a mass of 97.171 g. Was the helium gas pure? 
Carbon dioxide makes up approximately 0.04% of Earths atmosphere. If you collect a 2.6  L sample from the atmosphere at sea level (1.00 atm) on a warm day (28 oC), how many CO2 molecules are in your sample?
Calculate the volume occupied by 0.845 mol of nitrogen gas at a pressure of 1.37 atm and a temperature of 315 K.Given: n = 0.845 mol, P = 1.37 atm, T = 315 KFind: V
A 1.00 L flask is filled with 1.05 g of argon at 25 °C . A sample of ethane vapor is added to the same flask until the total pressure is 1.450 atm. What is the partial pressure of argon, PAr , in the flask? What is the partial pressure of ethane, Pethane, in the flask?
A 750.0 mL metal bulb is filled with 0.421 g of CH 4 and an unknown mass of NH 3. If the total pressure in the bulb is 3.77 atm at 315°C, then how much NH3 is also in the bulb?1. 2.39 grams2. 0.00713 grams3. 0.549 grams4. 14.5 grams5. 1.17 grams6. 0.996 grams7. 0.0323 grams
A 1.00 L flask is filled with 1.00 g of argon at 25°C. A sample of ethane vapor is added to the same flask until the total pressure is 1.250atm .Part AWhat is the partial pressure of argon, PAr, in the flask? Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units.PAr = _________________PART BWhat is the partial pressure of ethane, Pethane, in the flask? Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate UNITS.Pethane =_________________
The radius of a xenon atom is 1.3 X 10 –8 cm. A 100-mL flask is filled with Xe at a pressure of 1.0 atm and a temperature of 273 K. Calculate the fraction of the volume that is occupied by Xe atoms. (Hint: The atoms are spheres.) 
How many moles of O2 will be present in a 3.00 L sample of the gas collected at 25°C and 0.900 atm?1. 0.110 mol2. 0.134 mol3. 83.9 mol4. 9.06 mol5. 1.32 mol
A 10-liter container is filled with 0.10 mol of H2(g) and heated to 3000 K causing some of the H2(g) to decompose into H(g). The pressure is found to be 3.0 atm. Find the partial pressure of the H(g) that foms from H2 at this temperature. (Assume two significant figures for the temperature.) 
A sample of sodium azide (NaN 3), a compound used in automobile air bags was thermally decomposed and 15.3 mL of nitrogen gas was collected at 25°C and 755 torr. How many grams of nitrogen were collected? a. 16.85b. 12.8c. 0.0174d. 0.0168e. 6.21 x 10 -4
A 750.0 mL metal bulb is filled with 0.421 g of CH 4 and an unknown mass of NH 3. If the total pressure in the bulb is 3.77 atm at 315ºC, then how much NH3 is also in the bulb?1. 0.0323 grams2. 2.39 grams3. 14.5 grams4. 1.17 grams5. 0.549 grams6. 0.996 grams7. 0.00713 grams
Consider a gas in a container with an initial pressure, temperature and volume. What will happen to the pressure of the gas if the number of moles are quadrupled, the volume is tripled and the temperature is increased 5 times?A. the pressure will increase by 12 timesB. the pressure will increase by 6.7 timesC. the pressure will remain inchangedD. the pressure will increase by 2.4 timesE. the pressure will increase by 3.8 times
A 1.00 L flask is filled with 1.20g of argon at 25°C. A sample of ethane vapor is added to the same flask until the total pressure is 1.400atm .a. What is the partial pressure of argon, PAr, in the flask?b. What is the partial pressure of ethane, Pethane, in the flask?
A 40.2 L constant volume cylinder containing 2.21 mol He is heated until the pressure reaches 4.20 atm. What is the final temperature?A) 658 KB) 1074 KC) 804 KD) 931 KE) 258 K
A person inhales air richer in O2 and exhales air richer in CO2 and water vapor. During each hour of sleep, a person exhales a total of about 300 L of this CO2-enriched and H2O-enriched air.C6H12O6(s) + 6O2(g) ⟶6CO2(g) + 6H2O(g)(a) If the partial pressures of CO2 and H2O in exhaled air are each 30.0 torr at 37.0°C, calculate the mass (g) of CO2 and of H2O exhaled in 1 h of sleep. 
Calculate the mass, in grams, of 2.74 L of CO gas measured at 33°C and 945 mmHg   (R = 0.08206 L•atm•K-1•mol-1, 1 atm = 760 mmHg).a. 0.263 gb. 35.2 gc. 2.46 gd. 3.80 ge. 206 g
A 1.00 L flask is filled with 1.00 g of argon at 25 °C. A sample of ethane vapor is added to the same flask until the total pressure is 1.250 atm. i) What is the partial pressure of argon, PAr, in the flask? Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units.           ii) What is the partial pressure of ethane, Pethane, in the flask? Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units.        
What is the pressure in a 15.0-L cylinder filled with 32.7 g of oxygen gas at a temperature of 302 K? 
What is the temperature of 0.52 mol of gas at a pressure of 1.3 atm and a volume of 11.8 L? 
How many moles of CO are contained in a 5.00 L tank at 155 °C and at 2.80 atm?
Pressurized carbon dioxide inflators can be used to inflate a bicycle tire in the event of a flat. These inflators use metal cartridges that contain 16.0 g of carbon dioxide. At 298 K, to what pressure (in psi) can the carbon dioxide in the cartridge inflate a 3.45-L mountain bike tire? (Note: The gauge pressure is the difference between the total pressure and atmospheric pressure. In this case, assume that atmospheric pressure is 14.7 psi.) 
What pressure will 14.0 g of CO exert in a 3.5 L container at 75°C?A) 1.1 atmB) 2.3 atmC) 4.1 atmD) 6.4 atmE) 5.0 atm
A sample of N2O gas has a density of 2.85 g/L at 298 K. What is the pressure of the gas (in mmHg)? 
What mass of NO2 is contained in a 13.0 L tank at 4.58 atm and 385 K?
A 1.20-g sample of dry ice is added to a 755-mL flask containing nitrogen gas at a temperature of 25.0 °C and a pressure of 725 mmHg. The dry ice sublimes (converts from solid to gas) and the mixture returns to 25.0 °C. What is the total pressure in the flask? 
The air in a bicycle tire is bubbled through water and collected at 25 °C. If the total volume of gas collected is 5.45 L at a temperature of 25°C and a pressure of 745 torr, how many moles of gas were in the bicycle tire?
How many moles of CO are contained in a 5.00 L tank at 155 °C and 2.80 atm? a. 0.399 moles b. 1.10 moles c. 0.455 moles d. 0.289 moles e. 2.51 moles
For each of the items written below, state why it is wrong and write a version that is correct. What’s wrong?Write a correct version.  
A scuba divers tank contains 0.29 kg of O2 compressed into a volume of 2.3 L.What volume would this oxygen occupy at 26 oC and 0.95 atm ?
At a height of 300 km above Earth’s surface, an astronaut finds that the atmospheric pressure is about 10−8 mmHg and the temperature is 500 K. How many molecules of gas are there per milliliter at this altitude?
In an experiment reported in the scientific literature, male cockroaches were made to run at different speeds on a miniature treadmill while their oxygen consumption was measured. In one hour the average cockroach running at 0.08km/hr consumed 0.8 mL of O2 per gram of insect weight at 1 atm pressure and 24 oC.This same cockroach is caught by a child and placed in a 1-qt fruit jar with a tight lid. Assuming the same level of continuous activity as in the research, will the cockroach consume more than 20% of the available O2 in a 48-hr period? (Air is 21 mol percent O2)
Complete the following table for an ideal gas: P  V  n  T 2.10 atm  1.30 L0.510 mol? K0.320 atm0.260 L? mol32 oC660 torr? L0.334 mol360 K? atm585 mL0.260 mol290 KComplete the second row of the table.
Calculate each of the following quantities for an ideal gas.Calculate the quantity of gas, in moles, if 127 L at 56.0 oC has a pressure of 11.25 kPa .
Calculate the number of molecules in a deep breath of air whose volume is 2.30 L at body temperature, 37 oC, and a pressure of 740 torr.
The adult blue whale has a lung capacity of 5.0 x 103 L. Calculate the mass of air (assume an average molar mass 28.98 g/mol) contained in an adult blue whale’s lungs at 0.3 oC and 1.06 atm, assuming the air behaves ideally.
If the pressure exerted by ozone, O3, in the stratosphere is 3.0 x 10 -3 atm and the temperature is 251 K , how many ozone molecules are in a liter?
Many water treatment plants use chlorine gas to kill microorganisms before the water is released for residential use. A plant engineer has to maintain the chlorine pressure in a tank below the 85.0-atm rating and, to be safe, decides to fill the tank to 80.0% of this maximum pressure. (a) How many moles of Cl2 gas can be kept in an 850.-L tank at 298 K if she uses the ideal gas law in the calculation? 
Many gases are shipped in high-pressure containers. Consider a steel tank whose volume is 55.0 gallons and which contains O2 gas at a pressure of 16,500 kPa at 24 oC.What mass of O2 does the tank contain?
Standard conditions are based on relevant environmental conditions. If normal average surface temperature and pressure on Venus are 730. K and 90 atm, respectively, what is the standard molar volume of an ideal gas on Venus?
A cylinder of O2(g) used in breathing by emphysema patients has a volume of 3.00 L at a pressure of 10.0 atm. If the temperature of the cylinder is 28.0 °C, what mass of oxygen is in the cylinder?
What is the molarity of the cleaning solution formed when 10.0 L of ammonia gas at 33°C and 735 torr dissolves in enough water to give a final volume of 0.750 L?
The partial pressure of CH4(g) is 0.175 atm and that of O2(g) is 0.250 atm in a mixture of the two gases.b. If the mixture occupies a volume of 10.5 L at 65°C, calculate the total number of moles of gas in the mixture.
The partial pressure of CH4(g) is 0.175 atm and that of O2(g) is 0.250 atm in a mixture of the two gases.a. What is the mole fraction of each gas in the mixture?b. If the mixture occupies a volume of 10.5 L at 65°C, calculate the total number of moles of gas in the mixture.c. Calculate the number of grams of each gas in the mixture.
The vapor pressure of water at 25 oC is 23.76 torr. If 1.30 g of water is enclosed in a 2.0-L container, will any liquid be present?
The vapor pressure of CCl3F at 300 K is 856 torr. If 12.5 g of CCl3 F is enclosed in a 1.2 L container, calculate the number of moles of CCl3F in the gas phase.
Air conditioners not only cool air, but dry it as well. Suppose that a room in a home measures 7.0 m x 10.0 m x 2.7 m. If the outdoor temperature is 30 oC and the vapor pressure of water in the air is 85 % of the vapor pressure of water at this temperature, what mass of water must be removed from the air each time the volume of air in the room is cycled through the air conditioner? The vapor pressure for water at 30 oC is 31.8 torr.
A steel cylinder contains 150.0 moles of argon gas at a temperature of 25°C and a pressure of 8.93 MPa. After some argon has been used, the pressure is 2.00 MPa at a temperature of 19°C. What mass of argon remains in the cylinder?
How many liters of gaseous hydrogen bromide at 29°C and 0.965 atm will a chemist need if she wishes to prepare 3.50 L of 1.20 M hydrobromic acid?
How many liters of HCl gas, measured at 30.0 °C and 745 torr, are required to prepare 1.25 L of a 3.20-M solution of hydrochloric acid?
Propane, C3H8, liquefies under modest pressure, allowing a large amount to be stored in a container. Calculate the number of moles of propane gas in a 120-L container at 3.10 atm and 27 oC.
Analysis of a newly discovered gaseous silicon-fluorine compound shows that it contains 33.01 mass % silicon. At 27°C, 2.60 g of the compound exerts a pressure of 1.50 atm in a 0.250-L vessel. What is the molecular formula of the compound?
A cylinder contains 29.0 L of oxygen gas at a pressure of 1.9 atm and a temperature of 305 K .How much gas (in moles) is in the cylinder?
The average lung capacity of a human is 6.0 L. How many moles of air are in your lungs when you are in the followingsituations?a. At sea level (T = 298 K, P = 1.00 atm).
The average lung capacity of a human is 6.0 L. How many moles of air are in your lungs when you are in the followingsituations?b. 10. m below water (T = 298 K, P = 1.97 atm).
The average lung capacity of a human is 6.0 L. How many moles of air are in your lungs when you are in the followingsituations?c. At the top of Mount Everest (T = 200. K, P = 0.296 atm).
The steel reaction vessel of a bomb calorimeter, which has a volume of 75.0 mL, is charged with oxygen gas to a pressure of 14.5 atm at 22°C. Calculate the moles of oxygen in the reaction vessel.
Nickel carbonyl, Ni(CO)4 is one of the most toxic substances known. The present maximum allowable concentration in laboratory air during an 8-hr workday is 1 ppb (parts per billion) by volume, which means that there is one mole of Ni(CO)4 for every 109 moles of gas. Assume 24 oC and 1.00 atm pressure. What mass of Ni(CO)4 is allowable in a laboratory that is 14ft x 22ft x 11ft?
An aerospace manufacturer is building a prototype experimental aircraft that cannot be detected by radar. Boron nitride is chosen for incorporation into the body parts, and the boric acid/ammonia method is used to prepare the ceramic material. Given 85.5% and 86.8% yields for the two reaction steps, how much boron nitride can be prepared from 1.00 metric ton of boric acid and 12.5 m3 of ammonia at 275 K and 3.07 x 103 kPa? Assume that ammonia does not behave ideally under these conditions and is recycled completely in the reaction process.
Olympic cyclists fill their tires with helium to make them lighter. Assume that the volume of the tire is 860 mL , that it is filled to a total pressure of 125 psi , and that the temperature is 25 oC. Also, assume an average molar mass for air of 28.8 g/mol.Calculate the mass of air in an air-filled tire.
Olympic cyclists fill their tires with helium to make them lighter. Assume that the volume of the tire is 860 mL , that it is filled to a total pressure of 125 psi , and that the temperature is 25 oC. Also, assume an average molar mass for air of 28.8 g/mol.What is the mass difference between the two?
Olympic cyclists fill their tires with helium to make them lighter. Assume that the volume of the tire is 860 mL , that it is filled to a total pressure of 125 psi , and that the temperature is 25 oC. Also, assume an average molar mass for air of 28.8 g/mol.Calculate the mass of helium in a helium-filled tire.
A gas sample containing 1.50 moles at 25°C exerts a pressure of 400. torr. Some gas is added to the same container and the temperature is increased to 50.°C. If the pressure increases to 800. torr, how many moles of gas were added to the container? Assume a constant-volume container.
Popcorn pops because the horny endosperm, a tough, elastic material, resists gas pressure within the heated kernel until the pressure reaches explosive force. A 0.25-mL kernel has a water content of 1.6% by mass, and the water vapor reaches 170°C and 9.0 atm before the kernel ruptures. Assume that water vapor can occupy 75% of the kernel’s volume. (a) What is the mass (in g) of the kernel? 
Atmospheric scientists often use mixing ratios to express the concentrations of trace compounds in air. Mixing ratios are often expressed as ppmv (parts per million volume):On a certain November day, the concentration of carbon monoxide in the air in downtown Denver, Colorado, reached 3.0 x 102 ppmv. The atmospheric pressure at that time was 628 torr and the temperature was 0°C.b. What was the concentration of CO in molecules per cubic meter?
In the average adult male, the residual volume (RV) of the lungs, the volume of air remaining after a forced exhalation, is 1200 mL. (a) How many moles of air are present in the RV at 1.0 atm and 37°C?
Atmospheric scientists often use mixing ratios to express the concentrations of trace compounds in air. Mixing ratios are often expressed as ppmv (parts per million volume):On a certain November day, the concentration of carbon monoxide in the air in downtown Denver, Colorado, reached 3.0 x 102 ppmv. The atmospheric pressure at that time was 628 torr and the temperature was 0°C.c. What was the concentration of CO in molecules per cubic centimeter?
In the average adult male, the residual volume (RV) of the lungs, the volume of air remaining after a forced exhalation, is 1200 mL. (a) How many moles of air are present in the RV at 1.0 atm and 37°C?(b) How many molecules of gas are present under these conditions?
A sample of chlorine gas is confined in a 5.0-L container at 328 torr and 37°C. How many moles of gas are in the sample?
You have 357 mL of chlorine trifluoride gas at 699 mmHg and 45°C. What is the mass (in g) of the sample?
When air is inhaled, it enters the alveoli of the lungs, and varying amounts of the component gases exchange with dissolved gases in the blood. The resulting alveolar gas mixture is quite different from the atmospheric mixture. The following table presents selected data on the composition and partial pressure of four gases in the atmosphere and in the alveoli:If the total pressure of each gas mixture is 1.00 atm, calculate:(c) The number of O2 molecules in 0.50 L of alveolar air (volume of an average breath of a person at rest) at 37°C
Nitrogen oxide is a pollutant in the lower atmosphere that irritates the eyes and lungs and leads to the formation of acid rain. Nitrogen oxide forms naturally in atmosphere according to the endothermic reaction: N2(g) + O2(g) ⇌ 2NO(g); Kp = 4.1 x 10–31 at 298 KUse the ideal gas law to calculate the concentrations of nitrogen and oxygen present in air at a pressure of 1.0 atm and a temperature of 298 K. Assume that nitrogen comprises 78% of air by volume and that oxygen comprises 21%.
An environmental chemist sampling industrial exhaust gases from a coal-burning plant collects a CO2-SO2-H2O mixture in a 21-L steel tank until the pressure reaches 850 torr at 45°C.(a) How many moles of gas are collected?
How many grams of gas are present in each of the following cases? (a) 0.100 L of CO2 at 307 torr and 26 °C
An anesthetic gas contains 64.81% carbon, 13.60% hydrogen, and 21.59% oxygen, by mass. If 2.00 L of the gas at 25°C and 0.420 atm weighs 2.57 g, what is the molecular formula of the anesthetic?
How many grams of gas are present in each of the following cases?(b) 8.75 L of C2H4, at 378.3 kPa and 483 K
How many grams of gas are present in each of the following cases?(c) 221 mL of Ar at 0.23 torr and –54 °C
A compressed gas cylinder contains 1.00 x 103 g argon gas. The pressure inside the cylinder is 2050. psi (pounds per square inch) at a temperature of 18°C. How much gas remains in the cylinder if the pressure is decreased to 650. psi at a temperature of 26°C?
A truck tire has a volume of 218 L and is filled with air to 35.0 psi at 295 K. After a drive, the air heats up to 318 K. (c) If the tire leaks 1.5 g of air per minute and the temperature is constant, how many minutes will it take for the tire to reach the original pressure of 35.0 psi (ℳ of air = 28.8 g/mol)?
The world burns approximately 3.7 x 1012 kg of fossil fuel per year.By what percentage does the concentration increase each year due to fossil fuel combustion? Approximate the average properties of the entire atmosphere by assuming that the atmosphere extends from sea level to 15 km and that it has an average pressure of 381 torr and average temperature of 275 K. Assume Earth is a perfect sphere with a radius of 6371 km.
A 20.0-L cylinder containing 11.34 kg of butane, C4H10, was opened to the atmosphere. Calculate the mass of the gas remaining in the cylinder if it were opened and the gas escaped until the pressure in the cylinder was equal to the atmospheric pressure, 0.983 atm, and a temperature of 27 °C.
Many water treatment plants use chlorine gas to kill microorganisms before the water is released for residential use. A plant engineer has to maintain the chlorine pressure in a tank below the 85.0-atm rating and, to be safe, decides to fill the tank to 80.0% of this maximum pressure.(a) How many moles of Cl2 gas can be kept in an 850.-L tank at 298 K if she uses the ideal gas law in the calculation? (b) What is the tank pressure if she uses the van der Waals equation for this amount of gas? (c) Did the engineer fill the tank to the desired pressure?
A gas mixture with a total pressure of 760 mmHg contains each of the following gases at the indicated partial pressures: 126 mmHg CO2, 220 mmHg Ar, and 188 mmHg O2. The mixture also contains helium gas.What mass of helium gas is present in a 12.6-L sample of this mixture at 274 K ?
Naturally found uranium consists of 99.274%, 238U, 0.720% 235U, and 0.006% 233U (by mass). As we have seen, 235U is the isotope that can undergo a nuclear chain reaction. Most of the 235U used in the first atomic bomb was obtained by gaseous diffusion of uranium hexafluoride, UF6(g).(a) What is the mass of UF6 in a 30.0-L vessel of UF6 at a pressure of 695 torr at 350 K?(b) What is the mass of 235U in the sample described in part a? The atomic mass of uranium-235 is 235.044 u.
Breathing air that contains 4.0% by volume CO2 over time causes rapid breathing, throbbing headache, and nausea, among other symptoms.What is the concentration of CO2 in such air in terms of molarity, assuming 1 atm pressure and a body temperature of 37 oC?
A plasma-screen TV contains thousands of tiny cells filled with a mixture of Xe, Ne, and He gases that emits light of specific wavelengths when a voltage is applied. A particular plasma cell, 0.900mm x 0.300mm x 10.0mm, contains 4.00% Xe in a 1:1 Ne:He mixture at a total pressure of 500. torr. Assumptions: In order to calculate total moles of gas and total atoms, we assumed a reasonable room temperature. Since 4.00% Xe was not defined, we conveniently assumed mole percent. The 1:1 relationship of Ne to He is assumed to be by volume and not by mass.Calculate the number of Xe atoms in the cell.
A plasma-screen TV contains thousands of tiny cells filled with a mixture of Xe, Ne, and He gases that emits light of specific wavelengths when a voltage is applied. A particular plasma cell, 0.900mm x 0.300mm x 10.0mm, contains 4.00% Xe in a 1:1 Ne:He mixture at a total pressure of 500. torr. Assumptions: In order to calculate total moles of gas and total atoms, we assumed a reasonable room temperature. Since 4.00% Xe was not defined, we conveniently assumed mole percent. The 1:1 relationship of Ne to He is assumed to be by volume and not by mass.Calculate the number of Ne atoms in the cell.
A plasma-screen TV contains thousands of tiny cells filled with a mixture of Xe, Ne, and He gases that emits light of specific wavelengths when a voltage is applied. A particular plasma cell, 0.900mm x 0.300mm x 10.0mm, contains 4.00% Xe in a 1:1 Ne:He mixture at a total pressure of 500. torr. Assumptions: In order to calculate total moles of gas and total atoms, we assumed a reasonable room temperature. Since 4.00% Xe was not defined, we conveniently assumed mole percent. The 1:1 relationship of Ne to He is assumed to be by volume and not by mass.Calculate the number of He atoms in the cell.
A 6.0-L flask contains a mixture of methane (CH4), argon, and helium at 45°C and 1.75 atm. If the mole fractions of helium and argon are 0.25 and 0.35, respectively, how many molecules of methane are present?
A sample of hydrogen gas is mixed with water vapor. The mixture has a total pressure of 755 torr , and the water vapor has a partial pressure of 26 torr . What amount (in moles) of hydrogen gas is contained in 1.67 L of this mixture at 298 K?
Assume that an exhaled breath of air consists of 74.7 % N2, 15.4 % O2, 3.8 % CO2, and 6.1 % water vapor.If the volume of the exhaled gas is 460 mL and its temperature is 37 oC, calculate the number of moles of CO2 exhaled.
At 1450. mmHg and 286 K, a skin diver exhales a 208-mL bubble of air that is 77 % N2, 17% O2, and 6.0% CO2 by volume.(b) How many moles of N2 are in the bubble?
A 355-mL container holds 0.146 g of Ne and an unknown amount of Ar at 35°C and a total pressure of 626 mmHg. Calculate the number of moles of Ar present.
A sample of air contains 78.08% nitrogen, 20.94% oxygen, 0.05% carbon dioxide, and 0.93% argon, by volume. How many molecules of each gas are present in 1.00 L of the sample at 25°C and 1.00 atm?
A 275 mL gas sample contains argon and nitrogen at a temperature of 65 oC. The total pressure of the sample is 725 mmHg and the partial pressure of argon is 231 mmHg.What mass of nitrogen is present in the sample?
What pressure (in atm) will 0.44 moles of CO2 exert in a 2.6 L container at 25oC?
A mixture of 1.00 g H2 and 1.00 g He is placed in a 1.00-L container at 27°C. Calculate the partial pressure of each gasand the total pressure.
A piece of solid carbon dioxide with a mass of 5.60 g is placed in a 10.0-L vessel that already contains air at 710 torr and 24 oC.After the carbon dioxide has totally vaporized, what is the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the container at 24 oC?
A commercial mercury vapor analyzer can detect, in air, concentrations of gaseous Hg atoms (which are poisonous) as low as 2 × 10−6 mg/L of air. At this concentration, what is the partial pressure of gaseous mercury if the atmospheric pressure is 733 torr at 26 °C?
A sample of 5.30 mL of diethylether (C2H5OC2H5; density = 0.7134g/mL) is introduced into a 6.30  L vessel that already contains a mixture of N2 and O2, whose partial pressures are PN2 =0.752 atm and PO2 =0.208 atm. The temperature is held at 35.0oC, and the diethylether totally evaporates.Calculate the partial pressure of the diethylether.
A gas mixture in a 1.55 L at 301 K container contains 10.0 g of Ne and 10.0 g of Ar.Calculate the partial pressure (in atm) of Ne and Ar in the container.
After 0.600 L of Ar at 1.20 atm and 227°C is mixed with 0.200 L of O 2 at 501 torr and 127°C in a 400-mL flask at 27°C, what is the pressure in the flask?
A 35.3 g sample of solid CO2 (dry ice) is added to a container at a temperature of 100 K with a volume of 4.2 L.If the container is evacuated (all of the gas removed), sealed, and then allowed to warm to room temperature T = 298 K so that all of the solid CO2 is converted to a gas, what is the pressure inside the container?
Complete the following table for an ideal gas: P  V  n  T 2.10 atm  1.30 L0.510 mol? K0.320 atm0.260 L? mol32 oC660 torr? L0.334 mol360 K? atm585 mL0.260 mol290 KComplete the first row of the table.
A spherical glass container of unknown volume contains helium gas at 25°C and 1.960 atm. When a portion of the helium is withdrawn and adjusted to 1.00 atm at 25°C, it is found to have a volume of 1.75 cm3. The gas remaining in the first container shows a pressure of 1.710 atm. Calculate the volume of the spherical container.
Calculate each of the following quantities for an ideal gas.Calculate the volume of the gas, in liters, if 1.60 mol has a pressure of 1.26 atm at a temperature of -5 oC.
Calculate each of the following quantities for an ideal gas.Calculate the absolute temperature of the gas at which 3.43×10−3 mol occupies 478 mL at 755 torr .
Calculate each of the following quantities for an ideal gas.Calculate the pressure, in atmospheres, if 2.65×10−3 mol occupies 414 mL at 136 oC.
As 1 g of the radioactive element radium decays over 1 year, it produces 1.16 × 1018 alpha particles (helium nuclei). Each alpha particle becomes an atom of helium gas. What is the pressure in pascal of the helium gas produced if it occupies a volume of 125 mL at a temperature of 25 °C?
An aerosol spray can with a volume of 250 mL contains 2.30 g of propane gas (C3H8) as a propellant.If the can is at 24 oC, what is the pressure in the can?
Many gases are shipped in high-pressure containers. Consider a steel tank whose volume is 55.0 gallons and which contains O2 gas at a pressure of 16,500 kPa at 24 oC.At what temperature would the pressure in the tank equal 155.0 atm?
The thermal decomposition of ethylene occurs during the compound’s transit in pipelines and during the formation of polyethylene. The decomposition reaction isCH2=CH2(g) ⟶ CH4(g) + C(graphite)If the decomposition begins at 10°C and 50.0 atm with a gas density of 0.215 g/mL and the temperature increases by 950 K, (a) What is the final pressure of the confined gas (ignore the volume of graphite and use the van der Waals equation)?
Helium is collected over water at 25°C and 1.00 atm total pressure. What total volume of gas must be collected to obtain 0.586 g helium? (At 25°C the vapor pressure of water is 23.8 torr.)
A sealed flask contains 0.55 g of water at 28 oC. The vapor pressure of water at this temperature is 28.36 mmHg. What is the minimum volume of the flask in order that no liquid water be present in the flask?
A glass vessel contains 28 g of nitrogen gas. Assuming ideal behavior, which of the processes listed below would double the pressure exerted on the walls of the vessel?a. Adding 28 g of oxygen gasb. Raising the temperature of the container from -73°C to 127°Cc. Adding enough mercury to fill one-half the containerd. Adding 32 g of oxygen gase. Raising the temperature of the container from 30.°C to 60.°C
A sample of 5.30 mL of diethylether (C2H5OC2H5; density = 0.7134g/mL) is introduced into a 6.30  L vessel that already contains a mixture of N2 and O2, whose partial pressures are PN2 =0.752 atm and PO2 =0.208 atm. The temperature is held at 35.0oC, and the diethylether totally evaporates.Calculate the total pressure in the container.
What volume is occupied by 20.0 g of argon gas at a pressure of 1.26 atm and a temperature of 401 K ?
Propane, C3H8, liquefies under modest pressure, allowing a large amount to be stored in a container. (a) Calculate the number of moles of propane gas in a 110-L container at 3.00 atm and 27 °C.(b) Calculate the number of moles of liquid propane that can be stored in the same volume if the density of the liquid is 0.590 g/mL.
Complete the following table for an ideal gas.
Complete the following table for an ideal gas.
Calculate the pressure exerted by 0.5000 mole of N2 in a 1.0000-L container at 25.0°Ca. using the ideal gas law.
Determine the pressure in mmHg of a 0.134 g sample of helium gas in a 647 mL container at 36 oC.
A 5.0-L flask contains 0.60 g O2 at a temperature of 22°C. What is the pressure (in atm) inside the flask?
Calculate the pressure exerted by 0.5000 mole of N2 in a 10.000-L container at 25.0°Ca. using the ideal gas law.
A 2.50-L container is filled with 175 g argon.b. If the temperature is 225 K, what is the pressure?
If 1.47×10−3 mol of argon occupies a 75.0-mL container at 26°C, what is the pressure (in torr)?
Popcorn pops because the horny endosperm, a tough, elastic material, resists gas pressure within the heated kernel until the pressure reaches explosive force. A 0.25-mL kernel has a water content of 1.6% by mass, and the water vapor reaches 170°C and 9.0 atm before the kernel ruptures. Assume that water vapor can occupy 75% of the kernel’s volume. (b) How many milliliters would this amount of water vapor occupy at 25°C and 1.00 atm?
A weather balloon contains 8.80 moles of helium at a pressure of 0.992 atm and a temperature of 25 °C at ground level. What is the volume of the balloon under these conditions?
Iodine, I2, is a solid at room temperature but sublimes (converts from a solid into a gas) when warmed. What is the temperature in a 73.3-mL bulb that contains 0.292 g of I2 vapor at a pressure of 0.462 atm?
What is the pressure of 2.01 g of nitrogen gas confined to a volume of 0.205 L at 36 oC?
Liquid butane, C4H10, is stored in cylinders, to be used as a fuel. The normal boiling point of butane is listed as –0.5˚C. What volume does this much butane occupy at 751 torr and 36˚C?
Breathing air that contains 4.0% by volume CO2 over time causes rapid breathing, throbbing headache, and nausea, among other symptoms.What is the concentration of CO2 in such air in terms of  mol percentage?
What units are used in the equation pv = nrt?
A rigid vessel containing a 3:1 mol ratio of carbon dioxide and water vapor is held at 210˚C  where it has a total pressure of 2.10 atm. If the vessel is cooled to 10˚C so that all of the water vapor condenses, what is the pressure of carbon dioxide? Neglect the volume of the liquid water that forms on cooling.
The force of gas particles against the walls of a container is called A) pressure. B) volume. C) temperature. D) concentration
The pressure exerted by a gas on its container is directly proportional to ________.a. the volume of the containerb. the mass of the individual gas moleculesc. the Celsius temperature of the gasd. the number of molecules of gas in the samplee. the Fahrenheit temperature of the gas
Complete the following table for an ideal gas: P  V  n  T 2.10 atm  1.30 L0.510 mol? K0.320 atm0.260 L? mol32 oC660 torr? L0.334 mol360 K? atm585 mL0.260 mol290 KComplete the third row of the table.
A sample of nitrogen gas is confined to a 14.0 L container at 375 torr and 37.0 °C. How many moles of nitrogen are in the container?A. 0.271 molB. 2.27 molC. 0.369 molD. 206 molE. 0.227mol
Chlorine is widely used to purify municipal water supplies and to treat swimming pool water. Suppose that the volume of a particular sample of Cl2 gas is 8.70 L at 895 torr and 24 oC.How many grams of Cl2 are in the sample?
For each set of values, calculate the missing variable using the ideal gas law.
What pressure will 14.0 g of CO exert in a 3.5 L container at 75 degrees Celsius?
A 0.316 mol sample of nitrogen gas, N 2 (g), is placed in a 4.00 L container at 315 K.What is the pressure, in Torr, of the nitrogen gas? Express the answer using 3 significant figures.
A 2.50-L container is filled with 175 g argon.a. If the pressure is 10.0 atm, what is the temperature?
Calculate the volume occupied by 35.2 g of methane gas (CH 4) at 25ºC and 1.0 atm. R = 0.08206 L. atm/mol. Ka) 0.0186 Lb) 4.5 Lc) 11.2 Ld) 48.2 Le) 53.7 L
Into a 5.00 L container at 18oC are placed 0.200 mol H2, 20.0 g CO2, and 14.00 g O2. Calculate the total pressure in the container and the partial pressure of each gas.
A mixture of oxygen gas, nitrogen gas, and carbon dioxide in a 10.0 L container at 25°C has a total pr