Increasing the **temperature** allows a gas to absorb **thermal energy** and convert into **kinetic energy**. Kinetic energy allows the gas to move and the speed at which it moves gives us the **root mean square speed**.

Concept #1: Understanding kinetic energy & Root Mean Square Speed

Example #1: A 1.56 x 10** ^{13}** pg gaseous particle travels at 6.21 m/s. Determine its kinetic energy.

The kinetic energy (in J or kJ) of a gas molecule is directly proportional to its absolute temperature in Kelvins.

Practice: Calculate the molar mass, in g/mol, of a gaseous compound with an average root mean velocity of 652 m/s at a temperature of 30^{o }C.

Remember that using the root mean square speed equation deals with molar mass in g/mol, so further conversion may sometimes be needed.

A 0.81 mole sample of CO2 is confined in a 20 L container. The volume of the gas sample is decreased to 10L while holding temperature constant. The average molecular speed will.
a. increase
b. decrease
c. remain the same
d. insufficient information to answer

What is the root mean square speed (in m/s) of hydrogen molecules at 25.0°C?
( R= 8.3145 kg m2 s-2 mol -1 k-1)
a) no given answer is close
b) 3.72 x 106
c) 6.10 x 101
d) 1.93 x 103
e) 3.72 x 103

How is the root mean square velocity of a gas related to its molar mass?

You have a sample of gas at -32 oC. You wish to increase the rms speed by a factor of 2.To what temperature should the gas be heated?

The root mean square speed of nitrogen molecules in air at 20°C is 511 m/s in a certain container. If the gas is allowed to expand to twice its original volume, the root mean square velocity of nitrogen molecules drops to 325 m/s. Calculate the temperature after the gas has expanded.1. 45.1°C2. −45.1°C3. 261°C4. 347◦C5. −347°C6. −261°C7. 154°C8. −154°C

Which gas will have the highest root mean square velocity at the same temperature?NH3 b) He c) CO2 d) SO2 e) NO2

The root-mean-square speed of gas molecules is 256.0 m/s at a given T. The gas has a molar mass of 32.00 g/mol. What would be the root-mean-square speed for a gas with a molar mass of 131.0 g/mol?a. 126.5 m/sb. 62.53 m/sc. 518.0 m/sd. 1048 m/se. 189.8 m/s

Calculate the root mean square velocity of nitrogen molecules at 25.0°C. (1kg = 1000g)A) 729 m/s B) 515 m/s C) 149 m/s D) 16.29 m/s E) 51.2 m/s

What is the root mean square velocity (m/s) of H2O steam at 373 K?A) 2.26B) 22.7C) 71.4D) 372E) 719

Identify the gas particle that would travel the fastest at a temperature of 293 K.A. SO2B. CO2C. N2D. NeE. Ar

What is the root mean square speed of carbon dioxide molecules at 98°C? 1. 45.6 m · s -12. 574 m · s -13. 236 m · s -14. 459 m · s -15. 153 m · s -1

Helium is the lightest noble gas in the air. Calculate its root-mean-square speed (in m/s) in the winter when it is 0oC outside. (R = 8.3145 kg m 2 s -2 mol -1 K -1)a. 1845b. 1305c. 1.71 x 103d. 1.70 x 106e. 41.3

Calculate the root mean square velocity of nitrogen molecules at 25 oC

A 1-L sample of CO initially at STP is heated to 546 K, and its volume is increased to 2 L.(c) What is the effect on the root mean square speed of the molecules?

10.79The temperature of a 5.00-L container of N2 gas is increased from 20 °C to 250 °C. If the volume is held constant, predict qualitatively how this change affects the following:(b) the rootmean-square speed of the molecules

Helium (He) is the lightest noble gas component of air, and xenon (Xe) is the heaviest. [For this problem, use R = 8.314 J/(mol·K) and express ℳ in kg/mol.](b) Compare the rms speed of He with that of Xe at 30.°C.

The root mean square speed of H2 molecules at 25 °C is about 1.6 km/s. What is the root mean square speed of a N2 molecule at 25 °C?

What is the ratio of urms to ump for a sample of O2(g) at 300 K? Will this ratio change as the temperature changes?

What is the ratio of urms to ump for a sample of O2(g) at 300 K? Will it be different for a different gas?

Fill in the blanks for the following statement:The rms speed of the molecules in a sample of H2 gas at 300K will be ____ times larger than the rms speed of O2 molecules at the same temperature, and the ratio large{frac {u_{ m rms} ( m H_2)}{u_{ m rms}( m O_2)}} _____ with increasing temperature.

Calculate the root mean square velocities of CH4(g) and N2(g) molecules at 273 K and 546 K.

Calculate the root mean square velocity of gaseous xenon atoms at 25 oC.

Calculate the root-mean-square velocity of CO2 at 286 K .

Calculate the root-mean-square velocity of CO at 286 K .

The lunar surface reaches 370 K at midday. The atmosphere consists of neon, argon, and helium at a total pressure of only 2×10−14 atm. Calculate the rms speed of each component in the lunar atmosphere. [Use R = 8.314 J/(mol·K) and express ℳ in kg/mol.]

Calculate the root-mean-square velocity of SO3 at 286 K .

Consider the following drawing.If curves A and B refer to two different gases, He and O2 at the same temperature, which curve corresponds to He?

Consider the following drawing.For each curve, which speed is highest:
the most probable speed, the root-mean-square speed, or
the average speed?

Can the speed of a given molecule in a gas double at constant temperature? Explain your answer.

Calculate the root mean square velocity of I2(g) at 377 K.

Calculate the rms speed of CO molecules at 315 K .

Of these gases, which has the fastest-moving molecules (on average) at a given temperature?a. HBrb. NO2c. C2H6d. they all have the same average speed

Consider the following drawing.If A and B refer to the
same gas at two different temperatures, which represents the
higher temperature?

Calculate the most probable speed of Cl2 molecules at 315 K .

Helium (He) is the lightest noble gas component of air, and xenon (Xe) is the heaviest. [For this problem, use R = 8.314 J/(mol·K) and express ℳ in kg/mol.](a) Find the rms speed of He in winter (0.°C) and in summer (30.°C).

The rms (root-mean-square) speed of a diatomic hydrogen molecule at 50°C is 2000 m/s. Note that 1.0 mol of diatomic hydrogen at 50°C has a total translational kinetic energy of 4000 J.(A) Diatomic oxygen has a molar mass 16 times that of diatomic hydrogen. The root-mean-square speed vrms for diatomic oxygen at 50°C is:(B) The total translational kinetic energy of 1.0 mole of diatomic oxygen at 50°C is:(C) The temperature of the diatomic hydrogen gas sample is increased to 100°C. The root-mean-square speed vrms for diatomic hydrogen at 100°C is: i. (16)(4000 J) = 64000 J ii. (4)(4000 J) = 16000 Jiii. 4000 Jiv. (1/4)(4000 J) = 1000 Jv. (1/16)(4000 J) = 150 Jvi. (√2)(2000 m/s) = 2800 m/s vii. (2)(2000 m/s) = 4000 m/s viii. (1/√2) (2000 m/s) = 1400 m/six. (1/2)(2000 m/s) = 1000 m/s

A gas is at 24°C. To what temperature must it be raised to triple the rms speed of its molecules?

At which set of conditions listed below will the atoms be moving the fastest?(a) Ne at 100°C(b) Ar at 100°C(c) Ne at 50°C(d) Ar at 50°C(e) the conditions in answers (a) and (b) and (c) and (d) will be the same speeds

At 300K, what is the correct ordering (from slowest to fastest) of average molecular speed of the following gases: Ar, HBr, SO2, and CO2?A) HBr < SO2 < CO2 < ArB) Ar < CO2 < SO2 < HBrC) Ar < HBr < SO2 < CO2D) HBr < CO2 < SO2 < ArE) All these gases have the same average speed at the same temperature

Calculate the root-mean-square speed of methane, CH4 (g), at 78 °C. (a) 23 m/s (b) 350 m/s(c) 550 m/s (d) 667 m/s (e) 739 m/s

What is the rms speed of He atoms at 295 K?

Which of the following gases will have the largest root mean square speed at 100◦C?1. water2. argon3. oxygen4. methane 5. nitrogen

Which of the following gases will have the smallest root mean square speed at 100°C?(A) H2O (B) CH4(C) N2(D) O2(E) Ar

Mars has an atmosphere composed almost entirely of carbon dioxide, with an average temperature of -63°C.What is the rms speed of a molecule in Mars' atmosphere? Assume R = 8.315 J/mol•K.Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units.

What is the ratio of urms to ump for a sample of O2(g) at 300 K?

WF6 is one of the heaviest known gases.How much slower is the root-mean-square speed of WF6 than He at 300 K?

Calculate the rms speed of Cl2 molecules at 315 K .

Calculate the
most probable speed of an ozone molecule in the stratosphere,
where the temperature is 270 K.

How does the approximate root mean square
velocity of neon compare to that of krypton at the same temperature?

Calculate the rms speed of NF3 molecules at 28oC.

Consider separate 1.0-L samples of He(g) and UF6(g), both at 1.00 atm and containing the same number of moles. What ratio of temperatures for the two samples would produce the same root mean square velocity?

Find the rms speed of the molecules of a sample of N2 (diatomic nitrogen) gas at a temperature of 33.3°C

The average kinetic energy of the molecules in a gas sample depends only on the temperature, T. But given the same kinetic energies, a lighter molecule will move faster than a heavier molecule. rms speed = √3RT/M where R=8.314 J/(mol • K) and M is molar mass in kilograms per mole. Note that a joule is the same as a kg • m2/s2. What is the rms speed of N2 molecules at 287 K?What is the rms speed of He atoms at 287 K?

Calculate the root mean square velocity of F2,Cl2, and Br2 at 302 K .

Calculate the most probable speed of CO molecules at 315 K .