Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous ReactionsWorksheetSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds

Oxidation and reduction deals with the transferring of electrons between reactants. The reactant that loses electrons is oxidized, while the reactant that gains electrons is reduced

Redox Reactions

Concept #1: Understanding Oxidation versus Reduction

When in doubt about oxidation or reduction just remember the phrase: "LEO the lion goes GER."

Concept #2: Rules for Oxidation Numbers 

We use these oxidation number rules whenever we are asked to determine the oxidation number of an entire compound or the individual elements within a compound. 

Example #1: What is the oxidation number of each underlined element? 

Instead of being asked who is oxidized or reduced, sometimes you may be asked to determine the reducing and oxidizing agents

Example #2: In the following reaction identify the oxidizing agent and the reducing agent

Try your skills at determing the oxidation number of elements within molecules or polyatomic ions. 

Practice: What is the oxidation number of each underlined element?

a) P4                                  b) BO33–                                c) AsO42–                           d) HSO4

Just remember if you've been oxidized then you're the reducing agent and if you've been reduced then you're the oxidizing agent.

Practice: In the following reaction identify the oxidizing agent and the reducing agent:

Cr2O72- + 6 Fe2+ + 14 H→ 2 Cr3+ + 6 Fe3+ + 7 H2O

Basic Redox Concepts

Concept #3: OXIDATION-REDUCTION (REDOX) reactions deal with the transfer of electrons from one reaction to another.

Concept #4: From our understanding of redox reactions we can draw connections to voltage, current, charge and power. 

Additional Problems
Which of these ions is the best reducing agent?  Standard Reduction Potentials                   E°      Fe 3+ (aq) + e– → Fe 2+ (aq)                + 0.77 V Cu 2+ (aq) + e– → Cu + (aq)                 + 0.15 V   a) Fe 3+ b) Fe 2+ c) Cu 2+ d) Cu +    
Given the overall redox reaction:  Fe2+(aq) + Ce4+(aq) → Fe3+(aq) + Ce3+(aq) Identify the two half-reactions Oxidation half-reaction                            Reduction half-reaction A) Fe2+(aq) → Fe3+(aq) + e−                     Ce4+(aq) + e− → Ce3+(aq) B) Ce4+(aq) + e− → Ce3+(aq)                    Fe2+(aq) → Fe3+(aq) + e− C) Fe2+(aq) + e− → Fe3+(aq)                     Ce4+(aq) → Ce3+(aq) + e− D) Ce4+(aq) → Ce3+(aq) + e−                    Fe2+(aq) + e− → Fe3+(aq) E) Fe3+(aq) →Fe2+(aq) + e−                      Ce4+(aq) → Ce3+(aq) + e−
Which of the following is the strongest reducing agent?                                                                E° Sn2+(aq) + 2e- → Sn°                             -0.14 Cr3+(aq) + 3e- → Cr°                             -0.73 Sn4+(aq) + 4e- → Sn2+(aq)                     +0.15 Mn2+(aq)+ 2e- → Mn°                            -1.18 Cr2+(aq) + 2e- → Cr°                              -0.23 A) Sn2+(aq) B) Mn2+(aq) C) Sn4+(aq) D) Cr2+(aq) E) Mn°(aq)  
Which of the following reactions may occur at the anode? a. Ga3+ (aq) + 3 e–       →      Ga (s) b. Cu2+ (aq) + 2 e–      →       Cu (s) c. 2 Cl – (aq)      →       Cl2 (g) + 3 e– d. Co (s) + e–      →      Co+ (aq) 
Use the standard reduction potentials below to determine which element or ion is the best reducing agent. Pd2+ (aq) + 2 e –       →      Pd (s) E° = + 0.90 V 2 H+ (aq) + 2 e –        →        H2 (g) E° = 0.00 V Mn2+ (aq) + 2 e –       →      Mn (s) E° = – 1.18 V   a) Pd (s)             b) H + (aq)              c) Mn2+ (aq)              d) H2 (g)
Consider the following standard reduction potentials in acid solution:                                                             E°(V) Al3+ + 3e- → Al(s)                                - 1.66 AgBr(s) + e- → Ag(s) + Br -                   + 0.07 Sn4+ + 2e- → Sn2+                              + 0.14 Fe3+ + e- → Fe2+                                 + 0.77 The strongest oxidizing agent among those shown above is  A) Fe3+. B) Fe2+. C) Br -. D) Al3+. E) Al.
Which of the following is the weakest oxidizing agent?                                                                      E° Sn2+ + 2e- → Sn°                                      -0.14 Cr3+ + 3e- → Cr°                                       -0.73 Sn4+ + 4e- → Sn2+                                    +0.15 Mn2+ + 2e- → Mn°                                     -1.18 Cr2+ + 2e- → Cr°                                       -0.23 A) Sn2+(aq) B) Mn2+(aq) C) Sn4+(aq) D) Cr2+(aq) E) Cr3+(aq)
Identify the oxidation and reduction steps in the following reaction: 4Fe +3O2 → 2Fe2O3  
Which metal is the best reducing agent? a. Mn b. Al c. Ni d. Cr
Based on standard reduction potentials, would you expect copper metal to oxidize under standard conditions in the presence of oxygen and hydrogen ions?
In the Brønsted-Lowry concept of acids and bases, acid–base reactions are viewed as proton-transfer reactions. The stronger the acid, the weaker is its conjugate base.Would strong oxidizing agents be analogous to strong acids or strong bases?
Indicate whether each of the following statements is true or false.The stronger the oxidizing agent, the larger its reduction potential.
Assuming standard conditions, arrange the following in order of decreasing strength as oxidizing agents in acidic solution: Cr2 O7 2 - , H2 O2 , Cu2 + , Cl2 , O2.
Does a large positive electrode potential indicate a strong oxidizing agent or a strong reducing agent? What about a large negative electrode potential?
Relative strengths of oxidizing and reducing agents.Can an acidic solution oxidize a piece of aluminum?
Decide whether or not each of the following metals dissolves in 1 M HNO3. For those metals that do dissolve, write a balanced redox reaction showing what happens when the metal dissolves.Cu
Decide whether or not each of the following metals dissolves in 1 M HNO3. For those metals that do dissolve, write a balanced redox reaction showing what happens when the metal dissolves.Au
Decide whether or not Cr dissolves in 1 M HIO3.
From each of the following pairs of substances, use data in Appendix E in the textbook to choose the one that is the stronger reducing agent.Fe(s) or Mg(s).
From each of the following pairs of substances, use data in Appendix E in the textbook to choose the one that is the stronger reducing agent.Ca(s) or Al(s).
From each of the following pairs of substances, use data in Appendix E in the textbook to choose the one that is the stronger reducing agent.H2 (g, acidic solution) or H2 S(g).
From each of the following pairs of substances, use data in Appendix E in the textbook to choose the one that is the stronger reducing agent.BrO3- (aq) or IO3- (aq).
Activity Series of Metals in Aqueous Solution Metal Oxidation Reaction Lithium Li(s)  →  Li+(aq) + e- r . Ease of oxidation increases Potassium K(s)  →  K+(aq) + e- Barium Ba(s)  →  Ba2+(aq) + 2e- Calcium Ca(s)  →  Ca2+(aq) + 2e- Sodium Na(s)  →  Na+(aq) + e- Magnesium Mg(s)  →  Mg2+(aq) + 2e- Aluminum Al(s)  →  Al3+(aq) + 3e- Manganese Mn(s)  →  Mn2+(aq) + 2e- Zinc Zn(s)  →  Zn2+(aq) + 2e- Chromium Cr(s)  →  Cr3+(aq) + 3e- Iron Fe(s)  →  Fe2+(aq) + 2e- Cobalt Co(s)  →  Co2+(aq) + 2e- Nickel Ni(s)  →  Ni2+(aq) + 2e- Tin Sn(s)  →  Sn2+(aq) + 2e- Lead Pb(s)  →  Pb2+(aq) + 2e- Hydrogen H2(g)  →  2H+(aq) + 2e- Copper Cu(s)  →  Cu2+(aq) + 2e- Silver Ag(s)  →  Ag+(aq) + e- Mercury Hg(l)  →  Hg2+(aq) + 2e- Platinum Pt(s)  →  Pt2+(aq) + 2e- Gold Au(s)  →  Au3+(aq) + 3e- Based on their relative positions in table, which ion will have a more positive standard reduction potential?
Decide whether or not each of the following metals dissolves in 1 M HCl. For these metals that do dissolve, write a balanced redox reaction showing what happens when the metal dissolves.Al
Decide whether or not each of the following metals dissolves in 1 M HCl. For these metals that do dissolve, write a balanced redox reaction showing what happens when the metal dissolves.Pb
Decide whether or not each of the following metals dissolves in 1 M HCl. For these metals that do dissolve, write a balanced redox reaction showing what happens when the metal dissolves.Ag
Given the following reduction half-reactions: Fe3+(aq) + e-  →  Fe2+(aq) Eredo= + 0.77V S2O62-(aq) + 4H+(aq) + 2e-  →  2H2SO3(aq) Eredo= + 0.60V N2O(g) + 2H+(aq) + 2e-  →  N2(g) + H2O(l) Eredo= - 1.77V VO2+(aq) + 2H+(aq) + e-  →  VO2+(aq) + H2O(l) Eredo= + 1.00VWrite balanced chemical equation for the oxidation of Fe2+(aq) by S2O62- (aq).
Given the following reduction half-reactions: Fe3+(aq) + e-  →  Fe2+(aq) Eredo= + 0.77V S2O62-(aq) + 4H+(aq) + 2e-  →  2H2SO3(aq) Eredo= + 0.60V N2O(g) + 2H+(aq) + 2e-  →  N2(g) + H2O(l) Eredo= - 1.77V VO2+(aq) + 2H+(aq) + e-  →  VO2+(aq) + H2O(l) Eredo= + 1.00VWrite balanced chemical equation for the oxidation of Fe2+(aq) by N2O(g).
Heart pacemakers are often powered by lithium-silver chromate "button" batteries. The overall cell reaction is: 2Li(s) + Ag2CrO4(s)  →  Li2CrO4(s) + 2Ag(s)Write the anode reaction.
Which of the following chemical species is the strongest reducing agent based on the following information:F2(g) + 2 e – → 2 F– (aq)           E°cell = +2.87 VMg2+ (aq) + 2 e – → 2 Mg (s)     E° cell = –2.37 V a) F2 (g)b) Mg2+ (aq)c) F– (aq)d) Mg (s)e) None of the above
Rank the following half reactions (1-5) in order of oxidizing ability, from strongest to weakest._______   K → K+ + e–                                 E° = + 2.93 V _______   F2 + 2 e– → 2 F –                         E° = + 3.0 V________  2 H2O + 2 e– → H2 + 2 OH–       E° = – 0.83 V ________  Ag → Ag+ + e–                            E° = – 0.80 V ________  Ni2+ + 2 e– → Ni                         E° = – 0.23 V
Which of the following metal cations is the best oxidizing agent?a. Cu+b. Zn2+c. Cd2+d. Cr3+ 
Which of the following metals is the best reducing agent?a. Crb. Mnc. Nid. Li
You have an aqueous solution of FeCl 3  and CdCl2 . Using the table of standard reduction potentials, what metal ions or could you add to this solution in order to  selectively remove  the iron ions while not removing the cadmium ions? (circle all that apply)Cu(s)Ba(s)Co(s)Co2+(aq)Fe(s)Pb(s)
Of the substances below, which is the weakest reducing agent?a) Na (s)b) K+ (aq)c) Cl2 (g)d) Br– (aq)e) Fe2+ (aq)
Separate this redox reaction into its component half-reactions.O2 + 2Mg → 2MgO
Write a balanced overall reaction from these unbalanced half-reactions.i) In → In3+ii) Cd2+ → Cd
For the reaction:Ni2+(aq) + Mg(s) → Ni(s) + Mg 2+(aq)a. Indicate the half-reaction occurring at Anode.b. Indicate the half-reaction occurring at Cathode.Express your answer as a chemical equation. Identify all of the phases in your answer.
Two metals are represented by the symbols L and Z. Which is the best oxidizing agent listed?(A) L(B) L2+(C) Z(D) Z+
Separate this redox reaction into its balanced component half-reactions.Cl2 + 2Cu → 2CuClOxidation half-reaction:Reduction half-reaction:
Separate this redox reaction into its component half-reactions.O2 + 2Cu → 2CuO
Which of the following substances is the strongest oxidizing agent given the standard reduction potential? A. +2.71B. +0.40C. 0.00D. -0.81
Identify the oxidation and reduction steps in the following reaction:4 Fe + 3 O2 → 2 Fe2O3 
Which of the following is the STRONGEST reducing agent?a. Ba(s)b. Li+ (aq)c. Na(s)d. Cr2+ (aq)e. Li(s)
Given the overall redox reaction: Fe2+(aq) + Ce4+(aq) → Fe3+(aq) + Ce3+(aq)  Identify the two half-reactions. Oxidation half-reaction                          Reduction half-reactionA) Fe 2+(aq) → Fe 3+(aq) + e−              Ce 4+(aq) + e − → Ce 3+(aq)B) Ce 4+(aq) + e − → Ce 3+(aq)           Fe 2+(aq) → Fe 3+(aq) + e −C) Fe 2+(aq) + e − → Fe 3+(aq)           Ce 4+(aq) → Ce 3+(aq) + e −D) Ce 4+(aq) → Ce 3+(aq) + e −           Fe 2+(aq) + e − → Fe 3+(aq)E) Fe 3+(aq) →Fe 2+(aq) + e −              Ce 4+(aq) → Ce 3+ (aq) + e −
2NO3-(aq) + 8H+(aq) + 3Cu(s) → 2NO(g) + 4H 2O(l) + 3Cu2+(aq)i)  Indicate the half-reaction occurring at Anode. Express your answer as a chemical equation. Identify all of the phases in your answer.  ii) Indicate the half-reaction occurring at Cathode. Express your answer as a chemical equation. Identify all of the phases in your answer.
Which metal cation is the best oxidizing agent?a. Pb2+b. Cr3+c. Fe2+d. Sn2+
Rank these species by their ability to act as an oxidizing agent.Cu+, Cr2+,Cl2, Na+Rank from best oxidizing agent to poorest oxidizing agent.
Rank these species by their ability to act as an oxidizing agent.Mg2+, Zn2+, Sn2+, Ag+
Rank these species by their ability to act as an oxidizing agent.Sn2+, Cr3+, Li+, Ag+
From the skeleton equations below, create a list of balanced half-reactions in which the strongest oxidizing agent is on top and the weakest is on the bottom:U3+(aq) + Cr3+(aq) ⟶ Cr2+(aq) + U4+(aq)Fe(s) + Sn2+(aq) ⟶ Sn(s) + Fe2+(aq)Fe(s) + U4+(aq) ⟶ no reactionCr3+(aq) + Fe(s) ⟶ Cr 2+(aq) + Fe2+(aq) Cr2+(aq) + Sn2+(aq) ⟶ Sn(s) + Cr 3+(aq)
Which of the following metal cations is the best oxidizing agent?a. Pb2+     b. Cr3+     c. Fe2+     d. Sn2+
Use Appendix D to create an activity series of Mn, Fe, Ag, Sn, Cr, Cu, Ba, Al, Na, Hg, Ni, Li, Au, Zn, and Pb. Rank these metals in order of decreasing reducing strength, and divide them into three groups: those that displace H2 from water, those that displace H2 from acid, and those that cannot displace H2.
Gold exists in two common positive oxidation states, +1 and +3. The standard reduction potentials for these oxidation states areAu+ ( aq ) + e-  →  Au ( s )          Eredo= + 1.69 VAu3 +  ( aq ) + 3e-  →  Au( s )      Eredo= + 1.50 VMiners obtain gold by soaking gold-containing ores in an aqueous solution of sodium cyanide. A very soluble complex ion of gold forms in the aqueous solution because of the redox reaction4 Au ( s ) + 8 NaCN ( aq ) + 2 H2O( l ) + O2 ( g )  →   4 Na[Au(CN)2]( aq ) + 4 NaOH ( aq )What is being oxidized in this reaction?
Gold exists in two common positive oxidation states, +1 and +3. The standard reduction potentials for these oxidation states areAu+ ( aq ) + e-  →  Au ( s )          Eredo= + 1.69 VAu3 +  ( aq ) + 3e-  →  Au( s )      Eredo= + 1.50 VWhat is being oxidized?
Gold exists in two common positive oxidation states, +1 and +3. The standard reduction potentials for these oxidation states areAu+ ( aq ) + e-  →  Au ( s )          Eredo= + 1.69 VAu3 +  ( aq ) + 3e-  →  Au( s )      Eredo= + 1.50 VSuggest several substances that should be strong enough oxidizing agents to oxidize gold metal.
Using a table of standard reduction potentials, select the following elements that are capable of oxidizing Fe2+(aq) ions to Fe3+(aq) ions: oxygen, chlorine, bromine, iodine?
From each of the following pairs of substances, use data in Appendix E in the textbook to choose the one that is the stronger oxidizing agent.(a) Cl2 (g) or Br2 (l)
You may want to reference (Pages 860 - 867)Section 20.4 while completing this problem.Based on the data in Appendix E in the textbook, which of the following is the weakest oxidizing agent in acidic solution: Br2, H2O2, Zn, Cr2O72-?
You may want to reference (Pages 860 - 867)Section 20.4 while completing this problem.Based on the data in Appendix E in the textbook, which of the following is the strongest oxidizing agent in acidic solution: Br2, H2O2, Zn, Cr2O72-?
The standard reduction potential for the reduction of RuO4 - (aq) to RuO4 2 -  (aq) is +0.59 V.Use Appendix E in the textbook. Which of the following substances can oxidize RuO4 2 -  (aq) to RuO4 - (aq) under standard conditions: Br2 (l), BrO3- (aq), Mn2+ (aq), O2 (g), Sn2+ (aq)?
Which oxidizing agent will oxidize Br– but not Cl–?a. K2Cr2O7 (in acid)b. KMnO4 (in acid)c. HNO3
A solution contains both NaI and NaBr. Which oxidizing agent could you add to the solution to selectively oxidize I–(aq) but not Br–(aq)?(a) Cl2          (b) H2O2          (c) CuCl2          (d) HNO3
Using data from Table 17‑1, place the following in order of increasing strength as oxidizing agents (all under standard conditions).Cd2+, IO3-, K+, H2O, AuCl4-, I2
Answer the following questions using data from Table 17‑1 (all under standard conditions).a. Is H+ (aq) capable of oxidizing Cu (s) to Cu 2+ (aq)?
Answer the following questions using data from Table 17‑1 (all under standard conditions).b. Is Fe3+(aq) capable of oxidizing I -(aq)?
Consider only the species (at standard conditions)Na+, Cl -, Ag+, Ag, Zn2+, Zn, Pbin answering the following questions. Give reasons for your answers. (Use data from Table 17‑1.)a. Which is the strongest oxidizing agent?
Consider only the species (at standard conditions)Na+, Cl -, Ag+, Ag, Zn2+, Zn, Pbin answering the following questions. Give reasons for your answers. (Use data from Table 17‑1.)c. Which species can be oxidized by SO 42-(aq) in acid?
Consider only the species (at standard conditions)Br -, Br2, H+, H2, La3+, Ca, Cdin answering the following questions. Give reasons for your answers. (Use data from Table 17‑1.)a. Which is the strongest oxidizing agent?
Consider only the species (at standard conditions)Br -, Br2, H+, H2, La3+, Ca, Cdin answering the following questions. Give reasons for your answers. (Use data from Table 17‑1.)c. Which species can be oxidized by MnO 4- in acid?
Use the table of standard reduction potentials (Table 17‑1) to pick a reagent that is capable of each of the following oxidations (under standard conditions in acidic solution).a. oxidize Br - to Br2 but not oxidize Cl - to Cl2
Use the table of standard reduction potentials (Table 17‑1) to pick a reagent that is capable of each of the following oxidations (under standard conditions in acidic solution).b. oxidize Mn to Mn 2+ but not oxidize Ni to Ni 2+
Use the emf series (Appendix D) to arrange each set of species.(a) In order of decreasing strength as oxidizing agents: Fe3+, Br2, Cu2+
Use the emf series (Appendix D) to arrange each set of species.(b) In order of increasing strength as oxidizing agents: Ca 2+, Cr2O72−, Ag+
Which of the following metals is the best reducing agent?a. Mn     b. Al     c. Ni     d. Cr
When aluminum foil is placed in hydrochloric acid, nothing happens for the first 30 seconds or so. This is followed by vigorous bubbling and the eventual disappearance of the foil. Explain these observations.
How can Table 19.1 be used to predict whether or not a metal will dissolve in HCl? In HNO3?
Consider the following half-reactions:Pt2+ + 2e- →  Pt                                E° = 1.188 VPtCl42- + 2e- → Pt + 4Cl -                  E° = 0.755 VNO3- + 4H+ + 3e- → NO + 2H 2O       E° = 0.96 VExplain why platinum metal will dissolve in aqua regia (a mixture of hydrochloric and nitric acids) but not in either concentrated nitric or concentrated hydrochloric acid individually.
Use data from the table below to determine which metal does not dissolve in hydrochloric acid (HCl).Zn2+(aq)+2e– → Zn(s)E˚ = –0.76 VCd2+(aq)+2e– → Cd(s)E˚ = –0.40 VCu2+(aq)+2e– → Cu(s)E˚ = –0.34 VCu+(aq)+e– → Cu(s)E˚ = –0.52 VFe2+(aq)+2e– → Fe(s)E˚ = –0.45 VFe3+(aq)+3e– → Fe(s)E˚ = –0.036 V2H+(aq)+2e– → H2(g)E˚ = –0.00 V
Gold exists in two common positive oxidation states, +1 and +3. The standard reduction potentials for these oxidation states areAu+ ( aq ) + e-  →  Au ( s )          Eredo= + 1.69 VAu3 +  ( aq ) + 3e-  →  Au( s )      Eredo= + 1.50 VWhat is being reduced in this reaction?
Gold exists in two common positive oxidation states, +1 and +3. The standard reduction potentials for these oxidation states areAu+ ( aq ) + e-  →  Au ( s )          Eredo= + 1.69 VAu3 +  ( aq ) + 3e-  →  Au( s )      Eredo= + 1.50 VWhat is being reduced?
Consider the following metals: Ag, Au, Mg, Ni, and Zn. Which of these metals could be used as a sacrificial anode in the cathodic protection of an underground steel storage tank? Steel is mostly iron, so use −0.447 V as the standard reduction potential for steel.
Why would a sacrificial anode made of lithium metal be a bad choice despite its E°Li+/Li = −3.04 V, which appears to be able to protect all the other metals listed in the standard reduction potential table?
Arrange the following in order of decreasing strength as reducing agents in acidic solution: Zn, I- , Sn2 +, H2O2, Al.
Determine whether HI can dissolve 2.20 g Al.
The standard reduction potential for the reduction of Eu3 +  (aq) to Eu2 +  (aq) is -0.43 V. Using Appendix E in the textbook, which of the following substances is capable of reducing Eu3 +  (aq) to Eu2 +  (aq) under standard conditions: Al, Co, H2O2, N2H5+, H2C2O4?
Determine whether HI can dissolve 4.85 g Cu.
Determine whether HI can dissolve 2.42 g Ag.
Determine whether HI can dissolve each metal sample. If it can, write a balanced chemical reaction showing how the metal dissolves in HI.a. 2.15 g Alb. 4.85 g Cuc. 2.42 g Ag
Determine if HNO3 can dissolve each of the following metal samples.5.90 g Au
Determine if HNO3 can dissolve each of the following metal samples.2.50 g Cu
Determine if HNO3 can dissolve each of the following metal samples.4.78 g Sn
Determine if HNO3 can dissolve each of the following metal samples. Write a balanced chemical reaction showing how the 2.50 g Cu dissolves in HNO3.
Determine if HNO3 can dissolve each of the following metal samples. Write a balanced chemical reaction showing how the 4.78 g Sn dissolves in HNO3.
Which of the following is the strongest reducing agent in acidic solution: F-, Zn, N2 H5+ , I2, NO?
Which of the following is the weakest reducing agent in acidic solution: F-, Zn, N2 H5+ , I2, NO?
Which metal can be used as a sacrificial electrode to prevent the rusting of an iron pipe?a) Aub) Agc) Cud) Mn
Which metal dissolves in HNO3 but not in HCl?(a) Fe          (b) Au          (c) Ag
Which of these metals does not act as a sacrificial electrode for iron? Zn, Mg, Mn, Cu
Using data from Table 17‑1, place the following in order of increasing strength as reducing agents (all under standard conditions).Cu+, F -, H -, H2O, I2, K
Answer the following questions using data from Table 17‑1 (all under standard conditions).c. Is H2(g) capable of reducing Ag+(aq)?
Answer the following questions using data from Table 17‑1 (all under standard conditions).a. Is H2(g) capable of reducing Ni 2+(aq)?
Answer the following questions using data from Table 17‑1 (all under standard conditions).b. Is Fe2+(aq) capable of reducing VO 2+(aq)?
Answer the following questions using data from Table 17‑1 (all under standard conditions).c. Is Fe2+(aq) capable of reducing Cr 3+(aq) to Cr 2+(aq)?
Consider only the species (at standard conditions)Na+, Cl -, Ag+, Ag, Zn2+, Zn, Pbin answering the following questions. Give reasons for your answers. (Use data from Table 17‑1.)b. Which is the strongest reducing agent?
Consider only the species (at standard conditions)Na+, Cl -, Ag+, Ag, Zn2+, Zn, Pbin answering the following questions. Give reasons for your answers. (Use data from Table 17‑1.)d. Which species can be reduced by Al(s)?
Consider only the species (at standard conditions)Br -, Br2, H+, H2, La3+, Ca, Cdin answering the following questions. Give reasons for your answers. (Use data from Table 17‑1.)b. Which is the strongest reducing agent?
Consider only the species (at standard conditions)Br -, Br2, H+, H2, La3+, Ca, Cdin answering the following questions. Give reasons for your answers. (Use data from Table 17‑1.)d. Which species can be reduced by Zn(s)?
Use the table of standard reduction potentials (Table 17‑1) to pick a reagent that is capable of each of the following reductions (under standard conditions in acidic solution).a. reduce Cu2+ to Cu but not reduce Cu 2+ to Cu+
Use the table of standard reduction potentials (Table 17‑1) to pick a reagent that is capable of each of the following reductions (under standard conditions in acidic solution).b. reduce Br2 to Br - but not reduce I 2 to I -
Use the emf series (Appendix D) to arrange each set of species.(a) In order of decreasing strength as reducing agents: SO 2, PbSO4, MnO2
Use the emf series (Appendix D) to arrange each set of species.(b) In order of increasing strength as reducing agents: Hg, Fe, Sn
When metal A is placed in a solution of a salt of metal B, the surface of metal A changes color. When metal B is placed in acid solution, gas bubbles form on the surface of the metal. When metal A is placed in a solution of a salt of metal C, no change is observed in the solution or on the surface of metal A.(a) Will metal C cause formation of H2 when placed in acid solution?
When metal A is placed in a solution of a salt of metal B, the surface of metal A changes color. When metal B is placed in acid solution, gas bubbles form on the surface of the metal. When metal A is placed in a solution of a salt of metal C, no change is observed in the solution or on the surface of metal A.(b) Rank metals A, B, and C in order of decreasing reducing strength.
When a clean iron nail is placed in an aqueous solution of copper(II) sulfate, the nail becomes coated with a brownish-black material.(b) What are the oxidizing and reducing agents?
Which metal could you use to reduce Mn2+ ions but not Mg2+ ions?
Which metal(s) can be oxidized with a Sn2+ solution but not with an Fe2+ solution? (Hint: The reactions are occurring under standard conditions)
Bubbles of H2 form when metal D is placed in hot H 2O. No reaction occurs when D is placed in a solution of a salt of metal E, but D is discolored and coated immediately when placed in a solution of a salt of metal F. What happens if E is placed in a solution of a salt of metal F? Rank metals D, E, and F in order of increasing reducing strength.
Decide whether or not each of the following metals dissolves in 1 M HCl. For these metals that do dissolve, enter a balanced redox reaction showing what happens when the metal dissolves.Fe
Decide whether or not each of the following metals dissolves in 1 M HCl. For these metals that do dissolve, enter a balanced redox reaction showing what happens when the metal dissolves.Cu
Decide whether or not each of the following metals dissolves in 1 M HCl. For these metals that do dissolve, enter a balanced redox reaction showing what happens when the metal dissolves.Au
A voltaic cell similar to that shown in Figure 20.5 in the textbook is constructed. One electrode compartment consists of a silver strip placed in a solution of AgNO3, and the other has an iron strip placed in a solution of FeCl2. The overall cell reaction isFe(s) + 2Ag+(aq)  →  Fe2+(aq) + 2Ag(s)Write the half-reaction that occurs at the anode.
A voltaic cell similar to that shown in Figure 20.5 in the textbook is constructed. One electrode compartment consists of a silver strip placed in a solution of AgNO3, and the other has an iron strip placed in a solution of FeCl2. The overall cell reaction isFe(s) + 2Ag+(aq)  →  Fe2+(aq) + 2Ag(s)Write the half-reaction that occurs at the cathode.
A voltaic cell is constructed. One electrode compartment consists of an aluminum strip placed in a solution of Al ( NO3 )3, and the other has a nickel strip placed in a solution of NiSO4. The overall cell reaction is2Al(s) + 3Ni2+(aq)  →  2Al3+(aq) + 3Ni(s)Write the half-reaction that occurs at the cathode.
Write the anode reaction that cause the corrosion of iron metal to aqueous iron(II).
Indicate the half-reaction occurring at Anode and the half-reaction occurring at Cathode of the following: a. Ni2+(aq)+Mg(s) → Ni(s)+Mg2+(aq)b. 2H+(aq)+Fe(s) → H2(g)+Fe2+(aq)c. 2NO3-(aq)+8H+(aq)+3Cu(s) → 2NO(g)+4H2O(l)+3Cu2+(aq)
On which side of a reduction half-reaction do the electrons appear?
Consider the following balanced redox reaction:2CrO2−(aq) + 2H2O(l) + 6ClO−(aq) ⟶ 2CrO42−(aq) + 3Cl2(g) + 4OH−(aq)(b) Which species is being reduced?
Consider the following balanced redox reaction:2CrO2−(aq) + 2H2O(l) + 6ClO−(aq) ⟶ 2CrO42−(aq) + 3Cl2(g) + 4OH−(aq)(c) Which species is the oxidizing agent?
Consider the following balanced redox reaction:2CrO2−(aq) + 2H2O(l) + 6ClO−(aq) ⟶ 2CrO42−(aq) + 3Cl2(g) + 4OH−(aq)(d) Which species is the reducing agent?
Consider the following balanced redox reaction:2CrO2−(aq) + 2H2O(l) + 6ClO−(aq) ⟶ 2CrO42−(aq) + 3Cl2(g) + 4OH−(aq)(e) From which species to which does electron transfer occur?
Label the anode and cathode, indicate the direction of electron flow and the species present in each solution for each of the following overall redox reactions.2 Ag+(aq) + Pb(s) → 2 Ag(s) + Pb2+(aq)
Label the anode and cathode, indicate the direction of electron flow and the species present in each solution for each of the following overall redox reactions.Ni2+(aq) + Mg(s) → Ni(s) + Mg2+(aq)
Label the anode and cathode, indicate the direction of electron flow and the species present in each solution for each of the following overall redox reactions.2 H+(aq) + Fe(s) → H2(g) + Fe2+(aq)
Label the anode and cathode, indicate the direction of electron flow and the species present in each solution for each of the following overall redox reactions.2 NO3–(aq) + 8 H+(aq) + 3 Cu(s) → 2 NO(g) + 4 H2O(l) + 3 Cu2+(aq)
Label the anode and cathode, indicate the direction of electron flow and the species present in each solution for each of the following overall redox reactions. Indicate the half-reaction occurring at anode.a. Ni2+(aq) + Mg(s) → Ni(s) + Mg2+(aq)b. 2 H+(aq) + Fe(s) → H2(g) + Fe2+(aq)c. 2 NO3–(aq) + 8 H+(aq) + 3 Cu(s) → 2 NO(g) + 4 H2O(l) + 3 Cu2+(aq)
Label the anode and cathode, indicate the direction of electron flow and the species present in each solution for each of the following overall redox reactions. Indicate the half-reaction occurring at cathode.a. Ni2+(aq) + Mg(s) → Ni(s) + Mg2+(aq)b. 2 H+(aq) + Fe(s) → H2(g) + Fe2+(aq)c. 2 NO3–(aq) + 8 H+(aq) + 3 Cu(s) → 2 NO(g) + 4 H2O(l) + 3 Cu2+(aq)
Decide whether or not Au dissolves in 1 M HIO3.
Predict the relative reducing power of the group 2A elements. Rank from strongest to weakest reducing agent. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them.Ca, Mg, Be, Sr, Ba
Consider the following standard reduction potentials:Al3+ + 3e –  → Al (s)                  E ̊red = –1.66AgBr (s) + e – → Ag (s) + Br–    E ̊red = +0.07Sn4+ + 2e – → Sn2+                  E ̊red = +0.14Fe3+ + e – → Fe2+                     E ̊red = +0.77Which of the following substances below is the strongest reducing agent?a) Fe3+b) Fe2+c) Ag (s)d) Al3+e) Al (s)
Of the substances below, which is the weakest reducing agent?a. Na (s)b. K+ (aq)c. Cl2 (g)d. Br - (aq)e. Fe2+ (aq)
Break down reaction into its half-reactions.4Fe + 3O2 → 2Fe2O3
Indicate the half-reaction occurring at Anode, and Cathode.2Ag+(aq) + Pb(s) → 2Ag(s) + Pb 2+(aq)
It would not be wise to store a chromium(III) nitrate solution in an aluminum container. Why?a. Cr3+ is a stronger reducing agent than Al 3+b. Al3+ is a stronger oxidizing agent than Cr3+c. Al is a stronger reducing agent than Crd. Cr is a stronger oxidizing agent than Al
Which of the following metal cations is the best oxidizing agent?a. Co+2b. Zn+2c. Fe+2d. Fe+3
Which substance below is the strongest reducing agent? See the attached table of standard reduction potentials.a) Li+ (aq)b) Li (s)c) F– (aq)d) F2 (g)e) H2 (g)
Based on the data presented below, which is the strongest reducing agent? (a) Fe3+ (b) Fe2+ (c) Br- (d) Al3- (e) AI (s)
2I- + Cl2 → I2 + 2Cl-In the above redox reaction, use oxidation numbers to identify the element oxidized, the element reduced, the oxidizing agent and the reducing agent.
Cr3+ + 3Cu+ → 3Cu2+ + CrIn the above redox reaction, use oxidation numbers to identify the element oxidized, the element reduced, the oxidizing agent and the reducing agent. 
Ag2O + Cu + H2O → 2Ag + Cu(OH)2In the above redox reaction, use oxidation numbers to identify the element oxidized, the element reduced, the oxidizing agent and the reducing agent.
Study this chemical reaction: Pt + O2 → PtO2 Then, write balanced half-reactions describing the oxidation and reduction that happen in this reaction.
Which of the following is the  weakest oxidizing agent?
Rank these species by their ability to act as an oxidizing agent from Best oxidizing agent to least oxidizing agent.Al3+, Au3+, Fe2+, Cu+
Rank these species by their ability to act as an oxidizing agent (from best oxidizing agent to poorest).Ag+, I2, Ca2+, Cr3+
Separate this redox reaction into its component half-reactionsCl2 + 2Cs → 2CsClOxidation half reaction:Reduction half reaction:
Separate this redox reaction into its component half-reactions.3O2 + 4Co → 2Co 2O3 
Rank these species by their ability to act as an oxidizing agent.Mg2+, Zn2+, Cu+, F2
Rank these species by their ability to act as an oxidizing agent. Au3+, Ca2+, Pb2+, Fe2+