All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds
Understanding Pressure

Concept #1: Pressure vs. Force 


Welcome back guys. In this new video we're going to take a look at pressure, exactly what is pressure and what causes pressure. So, we're going to say that pressure is just defined as the force exerted per unit of a surface area, on the right side we have a container, inside of this container is we have these black balls, we're going to say these black balls represent individual gas particles and we're going to say that from these black balls we have arrows pointing in different directions, those arrows are basically showing us the direction that the gas particles are taking, gases move in a linear fashion, they move in a straight line and so they're going to be moving in this container bouncing everywhere, bouncing off one another and bouncing off the walls of the container, the pressure that the container has the total pressure inside is the result of each of these gas particles hitting the walls of the container, that's what it is, pressure equals the force the impact that these gas particles are doing on the walls inside of the container, that's all pressure is. So, we're going to say pressure is the force of collisions, the force of each one of these gas particles, hitting the walls of the container adding them up and dividing it by the total area inside of the container, that's what pressure really is, and we're going to say here that the SI unit for pressure, when we talk about pressure, is the Pascal, and we're going to say the units for the Pascal are newtons over meters squared. Now, we're going to say the SI unit of force is the Newton. So, this capital n that we talked about just a second ago, and we're going to say the units for the Newton are kilograms times meters over seconds squared. So, just remember those two SI units, that can easily be a theory question as your professor asks you.

Concept #2: The different units for Pressure


Despite the fact that the SI unit for pressure is Pascal, chemist all around the world continue to use different units for pressure, because they're just accustomed to it. The Pascal is the SI unit for pressure, but most of the time, you'll see in your books and in different types of research journals from chemists and scientists, they instead like to use atmospheres, torrs or millimeters of mercury. Sometimes you might see bars as well. The Pascal is the SI unit but they tend to like to use these other types of units for pressure.
Now, here we have the different names for pressure. All of these are just different types of pressure, basically different units for it. They're all saying the same thing. An atmosphere is a unit of pressure just like a torr is, just like a bar is, just like kilopascal is. It's going to be important that you know how to convert from one to the other.
It's a long list, but the ones that professor usually focus on the most are: atmospheres, millimeters of mercury, torrs and bars. Those are usually the ones that we see the most, and, of course, Pascals.
Just realize all of them are equal to one another, so we can say that 760 torrs are equal to 1.01325 bars. You could say that one atmosphere is equal to this many Pascals. All these units are in agreement with one another. They all equal one another. We're going to say that one atmosphere equals 760 millimeters of mercury or 760 torrs.
What I also want you to see is that just look at these two right here, the millimeters of mercury and the torrs, they both have the same number, so 760 millimeters of mercury equals 760 torrs. What this really means is that for every one millimeter -- what this means is for every one millimeter of mercury, we have one torr. They're basically the same units.
Just remember that what the SI units for pressure are, what are the SI units for force, what is pressure defined as and then the connections between the different units for pressure because when it comes to gases, we have to remember this because pressure plays a very large role in the property that a gas has. 

Although the SI unit for pressure is the Pascal, most professors use atm, mmHg or torrs as the everyday units for pressure. 


Example #1: A geochemist heats a limestone (CaCO3) sample and collects the CO2 released in an evacuated flask. The CO2 pressure is 283.7 mmHg. Calculate the CO2 pressure in torrs and atmospheres.

The conversion of units of pressure is simply a dimensional analysis question. Recall the dimensional analysis relationships been volume and length.  

Practice: If the barometer in a laboratory reads 34.2 inHg what is the pressure in bars? (1 in = 2.54 cm)