What factor best explains the reduction in the effective nuclear charge (Z eff) experienced by the outermost electrons of a multi-electron atom?
(a) Orbital splitting by the increased nuclear charge.
(b) The outermost electrons are moving too quickly to feel the full pull of the nucleus.
(c) Hund’s rule.
(d) The inner electrons shield the outer electrons from the nuclear charge.
(e) Pauli’s exclusion principle.
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