Solution: The effective nuclear charge for an atom is less than the actual nuclear charge duea. shielding.b. penetration.c. paramagnetism.d. electron-pair repulsion.e. relativity.

Problem

The effective nuclear charge for an atom is less than the actual nuclear charge due

a. shielding.

b. penetration.

c. paramagnetism.

d. electron-pair repulsion.

e. relativity.

Solution

The effective nuclear charge is the force exerted by the nucleus onto an electron. Electrons that are further away from the nucleus have a lower effective nuclear charge. This means the orbital that experiences the greatest Zeff is closest to the nucleus.


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