In this problem, we are asked if biological systems contradict the second law of thermodynamics.
Recall that the second law of thermodynamics states that: “the entropy of the universe increases.”
- Entropy is the degree of randomness or disorder in a system.
The system is the part of the universe that is of interest.
- There are three types of system.
- An open system can exchange both energy and matter with its surroundings.
- A closed system can exchange only energy with its surroundings, not matter.
- An isolated system is one that cannot exchange either matter or energy with its surroundings
The surroundings is everything that is not included in the system.
The universe is the combination of the system and the surroundings.
To answer this problem, let us first define what kind of systems are biological systems.