Ch.7 - Quantum MechanicsWorksheetSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds

Solution: Figure: Comparison of 1s, 2s, and 2p radial probability functions. Which orbital, 2s or 2p, will be lower in energy in a multielectron atom?

Problem

A line graph has distance from the nucleus in angstroms on the X-axis, ranging from 0 to 10 with intervals of 1, and probability on the Y-axis (unscaled, increasing).  Curves are shown for 1s, 2s, and 2p orbitals. The 1s electrons have a sharp, high peak of probability at around 0.5 angstroms then return to near-0 probability by 2.5 angstroms from the nucleus.  1s electrons are much closer to the nucleus — they screen the valence electrons. The 2s electrons have a very small peak at 0.5 angstroms, returning to 0 probability by 1 angstrom; 2s electrons experience greater nuclear attraction than the 2p electrons.  The curve then reaches a broad, medium-height probability at around 2.5 angstroms, before gradually decreasing to near-0 by 7 angstroms. The 2p electrons have a broad, medium-height probability roughly approximating the second portion of the 2s curve, except they peak at around 2 angstroms before gradually decreasing to near-0, again by 7 angstroms.

Figure: Comparison of 1s, 2s, and 2p radial probability functions.

Which orbital, 2s or 2p, will be lower in energy in a multielectron atom?