Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular StructureWorksheetSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds
Sections
Chemical Bonds
Lattice Energy
Lattice Energy Application
Born Haber Cycle
Dipole Moment
Lewis Dot Structure
Octet Rule
Formal Charge
Resonance Structures
Additional Practice
Bond Energy

Solution:
The O-H bond lengths in the water molecule (H2 O) are 0.96 Å, and the H-O-H angle is 104.5 . The dipole moment of the water molecule is 1.85 D.
CompoundElectronegativity DifferenceDipole Moment (D)
HCl1.91.82
HBr0.91.08
HI0.70.82
0.40.44
Calculate the magnitude of the bond dipole of the O-H bonds. (Note: You will need to use vector addition to do this.)

Solution: The O-H bond lengths in the water molecule (H2 O) are 0.96 Å, and the H-O-H angle is 104.5 . The dipole moment of the water molecule is 1.85 D.CompoundElectronegativity DifferenceDipole Moment (D)HCl1

Problem
The O-H bond lengths in the water molecule (H2 O) are 0.96 Å, and the H-O-H angle is 104.5 . The dipole moment of the water molecule is 1.85 D.


CompoundElectronegativity DifferenceDipole Moment (D)
HCl1.91.82
HBr0.91.08
HI0.70.82
0.40.44


Calculate the magnitude of the bond dipole of the O-H bonds. (Note: You will need to use vector addition to do this.)

Solution

We have to calculate the magnitude of bond dipole for each of the O–H bonds in the H2O (water) molecule.


Bond dipole moment (μ) is the result of charge separation that takes place as a result of bond polarity.

The polarity of a covalent bond is due the difference of electronegativity between the two atoms forming the bond.


To determine the contribution of each covalent bond towards the overall dipole moment, we will follow these steps:

Step 1: Draw a Lewis structure of H2O molecule.

  • To draw the Lewis structure, we need to do the following steps:
    • Step 1a: Determine the central atom in the molecule.
    • Step 1b: Calculate the total number of valence electrons present.
    • Step 1c: Draw the Lewis structure for the molecule.

Step 1d: Draw dipole moment arrows.

Step 2: Draw the molecule over an XY axis and determine the equation for individual contributions.

Step 3: Calculate the bond dipole for individual O–H bonds.

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