Chemistry Practice Problems Effective Nuclear Charge Practice Problems Solution: We estimated the effective nuclear charge on beryl...

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Solution: We estimated the effective nuclear charge on beryllium’s valence electrons to be slightly greater than 2+. What would a similar process predict for the effective nuclear charge on boron’s valence electrons? Would you expect the effective nuclear charge to be different for boron’s 2s electrons compared to its 2p electron? How so? (Hint: Consider the shape of the 2p orbital compared to that of the 2s orbital.)

Problem

We estimated the effective nuclear charge on beryllium’s valence electrons to be slightly greater than 2+. What would a similar process predict for the effective nuclear charge on boron’s valence electrons? Would you expect the effective nuclear charge to be different for boron’s 2s electrons compared to its 2p electron? How so? (Hint: Consider the shape of the 2p orbital compared to that of the 2s orbital.)

Solution

The effective nuclear charge experienced by an electron in an atom can be estimated by the actual nuclear charge (Z) minus the charge shielded by other electrons (S):

Let’s write the electron configuration for Boron (B) and identify its core (inner) and outer electrons:

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