Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular StructureWorksheetSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds
Sections
Chemical Bonds
Lattice Energy
Lattice Energy Application
Born Haber Cycle
Dipole Moment
Lewis Dot Structure
Octet Rule
Formal Charge
Resonance Structures
Additional Practice
Bond Energy

Solution: The HCl(g) molecule has a bond length of 127 pm and a dipole moment of 1.08 D.Without doing detailed calculations, determine the best estimate for its percent ionic character.

Solution: The HCl(g) molecule has a bond length of 127 pm and a dipole moment of 1.08 D.Without doing detailed calculations, determine the best estimate for its percent ionic character.

Problem

The HCl(g) molecule has a bond length of 127 pm and a dipole moment of 1.08 D.

Without doing detailed calculations, determine the best estimate for its percent ionic character.

Solution

In this problem, we are asked to determine the best estimate of the percent ionic character of the HCl(g) molecule.

Recall, that a dipole moment (µ) occurs any time there is a separation of positive and negative charge. 

It is expressed mathematically:

µ=qr

Where: µ  (in Debye)  is the dipole moment, q  (1.6 x 10-19 C) is the charges, and r (in m) is the bond length.


The percent ionic character is the ratio between the bond's actual dipole moment to the dipole moment it would have if electrons were completely transferred from one atom to another, multiplied by 100%.

Percent ionic character=µmeasuredµe- is completely transferred×100%


To solve this problem, let us assume that this molecule is completely ionic.

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