All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds

Solution: The graph below shows the change in pressure as the temperature increases for a 1 mol sample of a gas confined to a 1 L container. The four plots correspond to an ideal gas and three real gases: CO2,

Problem

The graph below shows the change in pressure as the temperature increases for a 1 mol sample of a gas confined to a 1 L container. The four plots correspond to an ideal gas and three real gases: CO2, N2, and Cl2.
A graph of pressure versus temperature shows that gas B and an ideal gas follow nearly the same trend while gases A and C are parallel but lower pressure at the same temperatures. The x-axis is temperature in Kelvin, ranging from 250 to 550 with intervals of 50. The y-axis is pressure in atmospheres, ranging from 15 to 45 with intervals of 5.

At room temperature, all three real gases have a pressure less than the ideal gas. Which van der Waals constant, a or b, accounts for the influence intermolecular forces have in lowering the pressure of a real gas?

Solution

The Van der Waals' Equation is as follows:

where a is the polarity coefficient, which accounts for the attractive or repulsive interactions of the gas molecules, and b is the size coefficient, which accounts for the size of the individual gas molecules. This equation show how real gases deviate from ideal behavior.

We can rearrange this equation to see how both a and b affect the pressure of the gas.

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