Ch.7 - Quantum MechanicsWorksheetSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds

What happens when light strikes the surface of a metal? The Photoelectric Effect can help to explain that. 

Examining the Photoelectric Effect

Concept #1: Understanding the Photoelectric Effect


We're going to take a look what's called the photoelectric effect. We all know who Albert Einstein is. We know his theory of relativity, E equals mc2. We need to realize that he never won a Nobel Prize for that theory. What he won it for was the photoelectric effect.
We said that Planck and Albert Einstein both theorized that light was made up of what they called small packets of energy. It wasn't until later on that we moved away these packets of energy or quantums of energy to the more modern term photon. We're going to say a single particle of this quantized packet of electronic energy was later named a photon. Photon is just a light particle.
According to Einstein's photoelectric effect, when photons with enough energy strike the surface of a metal, they'll be able to knock electrons off of the surface of the metal. In that way, we use the word emitting. The metal is emitting electrons. Electrons are coming off the surface of the metal.
We're going to say the energy that's required to do this is directly proportional to our frequency and we know this because we said that frequency and energy are directly related. It's tied to the frequency rather than the amplitude. Remember, amplitude just measures the intensity of the light. If it has a high amplitude, it's very bright.
We're going to say the photoelectric effect only happens when photons with the certain threshold of frequency strike the surface of the metal. This is the photoelectric effect. It's just saying that if I have a photon with enough energy and I toss it towards the surface of the metal, it can knock off electrons off of the surface of that metal.

The Photoelectric Effect was theorized by Albert Einstein to help explain what would happen to the electrons on the surface of a metal when a photon (light particle) with enough energy struck. 

Concept #2: Illustrating what happens when a photon strikes the surface of a metal.


Here we're going to illustrate how this happens. We have a photon here. We'll say it has not enough energy, so when it strikes the surface of the metal, nothing happens. We haven't reached the threshold frequency. But let's say we have another photon and this one is more energetic. It has way more energy. When it strikes the surface of this metal, the metal will start to emit or lose electrons.
Now, how does this work in real life applications? Here's what we have is a called a phototube and this basically puts to practice Einstein's theory of the photoelectric effect.What we're saying here is, we have incoming light. It's from photons. So they shine out and they're going to hit the surface of this metal here. What's going to wind up happening is this metal is going to start to release electrons. These electrons are then going to hit this wire here and this wire we call it an anode, a wire anode.
The electrons escaping, they're hitting that anode. Electrons are just seen as electricity. The electrons or electricity will travel down this wire to this part here called the voltmeter which reads out the amount of energy that's passing through it. Then we're going to say here, this portion here is called the photoelectric cathode.
A cathode is positively charged. Electrons are negatively charge, so it makes sense that the electron would travel through the anode, which is negatively charged, through the voltmeter where its read and then deposit itself on this white bar here, which is our cathode. This generates electricity.
It's this theory that Einstein used to prove the photoelectric effect.