Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular ForcesWorksheetSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds

Dipole moments or polarity happen in molecules when there is an unequal sharing of electrons. 

Molecular Polarity

Both a molecule's shape and bond polarity can affect its overall polarity. 

Concept #1: Understanding Molecular Polarity 

When the central element has no lone pairs and has the same surrounding elements then usually the molecule is nonpolar. 

Practice: Determine if carbon dioxide, CO2, is polar or nonpolar.

When the central element has lone pairs then we must use element dipole arrows and lone pair dipole arrows to determine polarity. 

Practice: Determine if xenon tetrafluoride is polar or nonpolar.

Concept #2: Some molecular shapes are seen as perfect and will always lead to a non-polar molecule overall. 

Example #1: Determine if silicon tetrachloride, SiCl4, is polar or nonpolar. 

Example #2: Determine if phosphorus trihydride, PH3, is polar or nonpolar. 

Practice: Determine if the following compound is polar or nonpolar. SiBr42-

Practice: Determine if the following compound is polar or nonpolar. H2S

Practice: Determine if the following compound is polar or nonpolar. PCl2F3

Practice: Determine if the following compound is polar or nonpolar. IF2-

Classify the molecule AsCl3. 1. polar molecule with polar bonds 2. polar molecule with nonpolar bonds 3. nonpolar molecule with nonpolar bonds 4. nonpolar molecule with polar bonds
Of the molecules drawn below, which is non-polar? If they are all polar, then do not circle a structure. 
The molecules below are described as either polar or non-polar. Which one is incorrectly described? (a) OCN− - Polar (b) CH2Cl2 - Non-polar (c) CO2 - Non-polar (d) NH3 - Polar (e) SO2 - Polar
Complete this sentence:  The PCl 5 molecule has             A)      nonpolar bonds, and is a nonpolar molecule.             B)      nonpolar bonds, but is a polar molecule.             C)      polar bonds, and is a polar molecule.             D)      coordinate covalent bonds             E)      polar bonds, but is a nonpolar molecule.
Explain why CO2 is nonpolar, but OCS is polar?
Select the molecule that is the most polar a. PCI5 b. BrCl5 c. XeF4 d. CCl4 e. XeF2
Predict which of the following molecules is non-polar. a) HBr b) CF4 c) H2S d) NI3 e) CHCl3
Which molecule below is nonpolar?  a) SF4 b) OF2 c) PH3 d) CBrCl3 e) XeCl4
Which statement best describes the polarity of CF 2I2 a) the molecule is nonpolar because the dipoles of the C—I bonds cancel each other b) the molecule is nonpolar because the dipoles of the C—F bonds cancel each other c) depending on the arrangement of the surrounding atoms, the molecule could be polar or nonpolar d) the molecule is always polar e) the molecule is always nonpolar
Which of these is nonpolar?
Which of the following species is nonpolar? 1. SCl2 2. ClO3- 3. IF2- 4. IF5
Which of the following statements about SO 32- is true? 1. The bonds are polar and the ion is polar. 2. The bonds are polar and the ion is nonpolar. 3. The bonds are nonpolar and the ion is polar. 4. The bonds are nonpolar and the ion is nonpolar.
Which of the following statements about SF5 – is true? 1. The ion has polar bonds and the ion is polar. 2. The ion has polar bonds but the ion is nonpolar.  3. The ion has nonpolar bonds and the ion is nonpolar.  4. The ion has nonpolar bonds but the ion is polar. 
Which molecule below is nonpolar? a. SF4 b. OF2 c. PH3 d. CBrCl3 e. XeCl4
Which statement best describes the polarity of CF 2l2? a. the molecule is nonpolar because the dipoles of the C-l bonds cancel each other. b. the molecule is nonpolar because the dipoles of the C-F bonds cancel each other c. depending on the arrangement of the surrounding atoms, the molecule could be polar or nonpolar d. the molecule is always polar e. the molecule is always nonpolar
Which of the following shows these molecules in order from the most polar to least polar? a. CH4 > CF2Cl2 > CCl4 CCl2H2 b. CH4 > CF2H2 > CF2Cl2 > CCl4 > CCl2H2 c. CF2Cl2 > CF2H2 > CCl2H2 > CH4 = CCl4 d. CF2H2 > CCl2H2 > CF2Cl2 > CH4 = CCl4 e. CF2Cl2 > CF2H2 > CCl4 > CCl2H2 > CH4
Which of the following statements about polar molecules is  false? a. A molecule with polar bonds can be nonpolar. b. A molecule with polar bonds can be polar. c. A molecule with only nonpolar bonds can be polar. d. A molecule with 120° bond angles can be polar. e. A molecule with 180° bond angles can be polar.
Which one of the following is a nonpolar molecule with polar covalent bonds? a. NH3 b. H2Se c. SOBr2 (S is central atom) d. BeCl2 e. HCl
Which of the following isomers of PF 2Cl3 are polar? a) only I b) only II c) only III d) II and III e) I, II, and III
Choose the compound below that contains at least one polar covalent bond, but is nonpolar. A) SCl2 B) CF2Cl2 C) BCl3 D) GeH2Br2 E) All of the above are nonpolar and contain a polar covalent bond.
Which of the following statements concerning polar molecules is false? a. There must be at least one polar bond or one unshared pair of electrons on the central atom. b. If there are more than one polar bond, they must not be symmetrically arranged so that their polarities cancel. c. If there are more than one unshared pair of electrons on the central atom, they must not be symmetrically arranged so that their polarities cancel. d. There must be an odd number of polar bonds so that their polarities not cancel. e. A molecule with symmetrically arranged polar bonds can be polar if the central atom is bonded to atoms of different elements.
Consider four molecules I) CHCl3 II) CH4 III) CH3Cl IV) CCl4 Which of these exhibit permanent dipole-dipole interactions? 1. I, III, and IV only 2. III only 3. None of these 4. I only 5. I and III only
Fill in the following chart. If the molecule column is blank, find an example that fulfills the conditions of the rest of the row. # Molecule Electron-domain Geometry Hybridization of Central Atom Dipole moment? Yes or No. 1 CO2 2 sp3 yes 3 sp3 no 4 trigonal planar no 5 SF4 6 octahedral no 7 sp2 yes 8 trigonal bipyramidal no 9 XeF2 Complete the first row of the table.
Fill in the following chart. If the molecule column is blank, find an example that fulfills the conditions of the rest of the row. # Molecule Electron-domain Geometry Hybridization of Central Atom Dipole moment? Yes or No. 1 CO2 2 sp3 yes 3 sp3 no 4 trigonal planar no 5 SF4 6 octahedral no 7 sp2 yes 8 trigonal bipyramidal no 9 XeF2 Complete the fifth row of the table.
Fill in the following chart. If the molecule column is blank, find an example that fulfills the conditions of the rest of the row. # Molecule Electron-domain Geometry Hybridization of Central Atom Dipole moment? Yes or No. 1 CO2 2 sp3 yes 3 sp3 no 4 trigonal planar no 5 SF4 6 octahedral no 7 sp2 yes 8 trigonal bipyramidal no 9 XeF2 Complete the sixth row of the table.
Fill in the following chart. If the molecule column is blank, find an example that fulfills the conditions of the rest of the row. # Molecule Electron-domain Geometry Hybridization of Central Atom Dipole moment? Yes or No. 1 CO2 2 sp3 yes 3 sp3 no 4 trigonal planar no 5 SF4 6 octahedral no 7 sp2 yes 8 trigonal bipyramidal no 9 XeF2 Complete the eighth row of the table.
Fill in the following chart. If the molecule column is blank, find an example that fulfills the conditions of the rest of the row. # Molecule Electron-domain Geometry Hybridization of Central Atom Dipole moment? Yes or No. 1 CO2 2 sp3 yes 3 sp3 no 4 trigonal planar no 5 SF4 6 octahedral no 7 sp2 yes 8 trigonal bipyramidal no 9 XeF2 Complete the seventh row of the table.
Determine whether each molecule is polar or nonpolar.SCl4
Classify CS2 as polar or nonpolar.
What is the distinction between a bond dipole and a molecular dipole moment?
How do you determine whether a molecule is polar?
Is XeF2 polar or nonpolar?
Which of the molecules below will be polar?CS2, BF3, SO2, CH3Bra. CH3Br onlyb. CS2 onlyc. Both BF3 and CH3Brd. Both SO2 and CH3Br
Are SO3,XeF2,IF2- polar or nonpolar? How it is polar or nonpolar? Add formal charges and bond dipoles to all lewis dot structures. According to Vallence bond theory , what is the hybridization of all atoms in SO 3? Describe the orbitals that overlap to form all bonds in SO3.
Specify the polarity of the bonds and the overall polarity of the molecule.# of Polar Bonds _____________Polar molecule (yes/no) _______________ 
Specify the polarity of the bonds and the overall polarity of the molecule.# of Polar Bonds _____________Polar molecule (yes/no) _______________
Which of the following molecules is non-polar? A) XeF4 B) H2O C) PH3 D) O3 E) H2O2
Choose from the compound below that contains at least one polar covalent bond, but is non-polar.a. HCNb. CF4c. SeBr4d. ICl3e. Both B and C are non-polar and contain a polar covalent bond
Consider the following moleculesI. BCl3        II. CHBr3 (C is the central atom)      III. Cl2        IV. XeBr2          V. COThese molecules have a zero net dipole moment (nonplolar)III, VIII, IV, VI, III, IVI, III, IV, VINone of them 
Which statement best describes the polarity of CF 2Cl2?a. Always polar.b. Always nonpolar.c. Depending on the arrangement of outer atoms, this molecule could be polar or nonpolar.
Which statement best describes the polarity of SF 4Cl2?a. Always polar.b. Always nonpolar.c. Depending on the arrangement of outer atoms, this molecule could be polar or nonpolar.
Which one of the following molecules is polar? a) PBr5 b) CCl4 c) BrF5 d) XeF2  e) XeF4
How many of the following molecules are polar?a. BrCl3b. CS2c. SiF4d. SO3
Identify whether each molecule given below is polar or nonpolar.SiH3Br, SBr2, BrF3, BF3 
There are 3 Lewis structures for C2H2Cl2 draw all three and indicate whether each is non-polar or polar.Explain why one of these structures is non-polar and the other 2 are polar.
Which statement is true about the polarity of HCN, which has a structure of H-C≡N:?(Hint: The electronegativities of H, C, and N are 2.1, 2.5, and 3.0, respectively.)a. The carbon-nitrogen bond in HCN is a polar-covalent bondb. Both bonds in HCN are nonpolar covalent bondsc. The total molecular dipole moment in HCN points towards the H atomd. Statements a and c are correcte. Statements b and c are correct
Draw the lewis dot structure for CH 2Cl2. Is this molecule polar?
How would you describe the molecular polarity of SeCl 6?Nonpolar, because Se-Cl is a nonpolar bond and there is no lone pair on SeNonpolar, because Se-Cl is a polar bond but the geometry is symmetricPolar, because Se-Cl is a polar bond although the geometry is symmetricPolar, because Se-Cl is a polar bond and there is a lone pair on SePolar, because Se-Cl is a nonpolar bond but there is a lone pair on Se
There are 3 different possible isomers of a dibromoethene molecule, C 2H2Br2. One of them has no net dipole moment, but the other two do. Draw Lewis structures for each of these isomers. Include H atoms.Nonpolar C2H2Br2 (one isomer)Polar C2H2Br2 (two isomers)
How many of the following molecules are polar?CF4             PCl  3            H 2S            ICl 5a. 0b. 1c. 2d. 3e. 4
BrCl5 (bromine pentachloride) is sometimes called a polar molecule, sometimes called nonpolar. Which one is it REALLY and WHY?
There are 3 Lewis structures for [ NO3]- draw all three and compare polarity of the 3.
Water is known as a polar molecule because (check all apply)a. The oxygen and hydrogen atoms have the same electronegativity.b. The hydrogen atom attracts electrons much more strongly than the oxygen atom.c. Water has two hydrogen atoms covalently bonded to a single oxygen atom.d. The oxygen atom has a greater attraction for electrons than the hydrogen atom does.e. Water dipole moment is equal to zero.f. The electrons of the covalent bond are not shared equally between the hydrogen and oxygen atoms.
Is O3 polar or non-polar?
For the molecules below, provide the Lewis dot structure, draw the three dimensional dash-wedge structure, and comment on the polarity of the molecule.a. Nitrous acid, HNO2b. Polypropylene, CH3CHCH2c. Percholorethylene, CCl2CCl2d. Sulfonyl fluoride, SO2F2
How do you determine if a molecule is polar or nonpolar?
Is ClF3 polar or non polar?
Which of the following molecules is nonpolar? a. NH3 b. OF2 c. CH3Cl d. H2O e. BeCl2   
Predict which molecules are polar. Select all that apply. a) AsF3 b) IOF5 c) CF4 d) CH2Cl2
Predict whether each of the following molecules is polar or nonpolar. XeF4, NH3, CH3Br, CCl4, SF4, GaH3
Explain how a molecule that contains polar bonds can be nonpolar.
The molecule O=C=S is linear and has a Lewis structure analogous to that of CO2. Would you expect this molecule to be nonpolar?
Except for nitrogen, the elements of Group 5A(15) all form pentafluorides, and most form pentachlorides. The chlorine atoms of PCl5 can be replaced with fluorine atoms one at a time to give, successively, PCl4F, PCl3F2, … , PF5. (b) Which of the five fluorine-containing molecules have no dipole moment?
Explain why CO2 and CCl4 are both nonpolar even though they contain polar bonds.
What is the sum of the two red vectors at the top of the left figure?
Identify the molecules with polar bonds and the polar molecules. a. CCl4  b. CH3Cl c. H2O d. CO2 e. O2
Classify these molecules as polar or nonpolar. CH3Cl CCl4 HF BCl3 H2O H2
Predict whether each of the following molecules is polar or non-polar: IF, CS2, SO3, PCl3, SF6, IF5
Which of the following molecules is not necessarily polar?a. SeF4b. SO2c. CH2Cl2d. PH3e. Cl2XeF2
Methyl isocyanate, CH3NCO, was made infamous in 1984 when an accidental leakage of this compound from a storage tank in Bhopal, India, resulted in the deaths of about 3,800 people and severe and lasting injury to many thousands more. Do you predict that the molecule will have a dipole moment?
As a general rule, MXn molecules (where M represents a central atom and X represents terminal atoms; n = 2 – 5) are polar if there is one or more lone pairs of electrons on M. NH3 (M = N, X = H, n = 3) is an example. There are two molecular structures with lone pairs that are exceptions to this rule. What are they?
The following molecules have the same molecular formula (C3H8O), but different chemical structures.propanolethyl methyl etherWhich molecule do you expect to have a larger dipole moment?
Which of the following molecules have net dipole moments? For the molecules that are polar, indicate the polarity of each bond and the direction of the net dipole moment of the molecule.a. CH2Cl2, CHCl3, CCl4
Which of the following molecules have net dipole moments? For the molecules that are polar, indicate the polarity of each bond and the direction of the net dipole moment of the molecule.b. CO2, N2O
Which of the following molecules have net dipole moments? For the molecules that are polar, indicate the polarity of each bond and the direction of the net dipole moment of the molecule.c. PH3, NH3
Determine whether each molecule is polar or nonpolar.SCl2
Dichloroethylene (C2H2Cl2) has three forms (isomers), each of which is a different substance. How many isomers of dichloroethylene have a zero dipole moment?
You may want to reference (Pages 352 - 354) Section 9.3 while completing this problem.Consider a molecule with formula AX3. Supposing the A–X bond is polar, how would you expect the dipole moment of the AX3 molecule to change as the X–A–X bond angle increases from 100˚ to 120˚?
The molecule shown here is difluoromethane (CH2F2), which is used as a refrigerant called R-32.Would the molecule have a nonzero dipole moment?
The molecule shown here is difluoromethane (CH2F2), which is used as a refrigerant called R-32.If the molecule is polar, which of the following describes the direction of the overall dipole moment vector in the molecule:(i) from the carbon atom toward a fluorine atom(ii) from the carbon atom to a point midway between the fluorine atoms(iii) from the carbon atom to a point midway between the hydrogen atoms(iv) from the carbon atom toward a hydrogen atom?
The Lewis structure for allene is shown in the diagram.Does it have a nonzero dipole moment?
Which of these AF3 molecules will have a nonzero dipole moment?