Ch.1 - Intro to General ChemistryWorksheetSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds

Chemistry is the study of matter and the changes it undergoes, with the atom being its basic functional unit. 


Concept #1: Understanding Matter


Hey guys! Welcome to Clutch. My name is Jules Bruno, and I'll be your Chemistry 1 tutor this semester. Growing up, we’re taught about Math, English and some of the other social sciences early on in life. But for very few of us, we might get exposed to chemistry when we’re in high school. But even then, we’re only shown a small glimpse of the possibilities behind chemistry. For the vast majority of us, we don't see chemistry until we get to college. At that point, we're talking about empirical formula and moles, ionic bonds and covalent bonds. It might seem a little bit confusing. It's my goal this semester to help to demystify chemistry and break it down into a much simpler aspect so that you can better understand more complex ideas.
Our teachers sometimes talk to us as though we’re chemists, but the thing is we’re not chemists. We’re students. It's my goal this semester whether you’re majoring in chemistry or majoring in some other subject to help you guys better understand the advanced topics we’re going to cover this semester so that you can succeed in this course.
What we're going to do now is we're going to head to our first topic. Now, if we take a look, we're going to see that our first topic is basically what is chemistry. Chemistry is just the study of matter and the changes that it undergoes. Matter is basically anything that has mass to it and takes up space. Your book, your book bag, your computer. Everything around us is made up of matter, even ourselves. Everything that has some mass to it and takes up any amount of space is considered matter.
We're going to say the changes matter undergoes are two types. Matter can undergo physical changes in which it just changes the state it’s in. For example, we have an ice cube water solid melting in the sun. It going’s from water as a solid to water as a liquid. A physical change does not change the compound itself. It stays the same compound. The second type of change we're talking about is chemical change. Chemical change basically changes the composition, the makeup, of that compound. Let's say I superheat the water and it basically gets vaporized into hydrogen gas and oxygen gas. It started off as water, but now it’s something completely different, two new products. This is an example of a chemical change.
We're going to say that the basic functional unit in chemistry is defined as the atom. We're going to say when two or more these atoms chemically bond together, they're going to form an independent structure which we call a molecule. When I say atom, I really mean element. Let's say we have an element A. It could combine with itself, a second amount of itself, to give us a molecule A2 or that element A or atom A could combine with something totally different, an atom B to create a molecule AB. Basically when I say atom, really meaning elements, individual elements. They can either combined with themselves to create molecules or they could combine with something entirely different from themselves to still make a molecule.

Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass

Concept #2: Classifications of Matter


Now we’re going to have to say we have to classify the different types, the different states of matter. Now we’re going to say that under appropriate conditions of temperature and pressure matter can exist in 3 different states. We know what these are, they’re solids, liquids and gases. And here on the bottom I basically give us 3 illustrations to help us see the different types of matter, the different states of matter. So we’re going to say in the first blank, we’re going to say these have a fixed shape and volume. Meaning that if I put them in a container they hold on to their properties, their physical features. So if we take a look at this first container we can see that we have some type of solid in there. Maybe a lump of clay, a lump of dirt. That’s going to be our solid. Solids don’t take on the shape of the container or fill up the volume. For the next one we say that these guys take up the shape and volume of the container. Now some of you might say this is a liquid, but that’s not always true. The better answer is, are gases. Gases will take up the shape and volume of the container. Now if we take a look at this third image right here you can see that inside the container it looks a little bit pink. That pink color is basically gas molecules spreading themselves out as far as possible to take up every single inch inside of that container. We’re going to say that when gases do that they’re behaving ideally. We won’t get to see this yet, we’ll see this later on in the semester when we’re focusing predominately on gases. But just remember, this is a normal behavior of gases. If you give them any amount of room, they’re going to take all of that room up. So that leaves us that last one. We’re going to say that liquids will conform to the shape of the container, but not necessarily the volume. They don’t always take up the volume, so for example we take a look at this picture. We can see that we have a red liquid at the bottom of the container, but there’s not enough liquid to take up the entire volume of the container. We can say that we might have 10 milliliters of the liquid, but the container itself can hold up to about 30 milliliters. As a result, we don’t have enough liquid to take up the entire volume. So, just remember chemistry is just the study of matter, matter has 3 different states. Each one have certain properties that they hold true to themselves, and remember we’re going to talk more later on about physical and chemical changes that matter can undergo. Understand these basic principles so that we can branch away from them to more complex and more chemical based equations, and ideas and concepts.

Under appropriate conditions of pressure and temperature, most substances can exist in 3 states of matter.

Concept #3: Volume, compressibility and viscosity of phases of matter 


From this, we can take a microscopic explanation to see what each of these different states of matter have in common and what they have different from one another. We're going to say that for the gases, the gases—remember they assume the shape and volume of their containers.
We can see that in the third container, it's kind of like a pink haze inside of the container. That's because if you give a gas a chance, it will take up every single inch of space that's available. It will take on the full shape and fill up the entire volume of any container it's in.
For the liquid, the liquid, we're going to say it assumes the shape of the portion of its container it occupies. In the middle container, we can see that liquid becomes a cylinder, just like the container it's in. It takes on the same shape of it, but if there's not enough liquid, it can't take up the volume. Liquid usually just take up the shape but not necessarily the volume. If there's not enough liquid to fill up the entire container then it won't take up the volume.
Solid, solids we're going to say maintain a fixed shape and volume.
For the next category, we're talking about compressibility. All these means is 'Am I able to squeeze the atoms to make them more tightly packed, to bring them closer to one another?' Remember, compressibility just means, 'Am I able to squeeze the atom within each of these states of matter?'
Here the gases, the molecules are very far apart. The atoms, they are super far apart, they're bouncing everywhere. Because they're far apart, I'm able to squeeze them and caused them to become closer together. We're going to say that gases are very compressible. I'm able to use pressure, increase the pressure and squeeze them closer together.
In liquids, the liquids are not as tightly packed as solids, but they really are next to each other. They're sliding against each other, sliding around each other. We're going to say that liquids are not easily compressible. We can barely do anything to put them closer together.
Solids, we already said in the beginning that solids form a rigid structure. The atoms are tightly packed. They're as close as we can make them. We're going to say that solids are not compressible at all.
Finally the last concept viscosity! Viscosity, just think of it as resistance to flow. We're going to say that viscosity is the resistance to flow. What does this mean? That just means that something that is viscous does not want to move. Let's think of two different examples.
Let's say we have two buckets. We have a bucket of water and a bucket of honey. Let's say, right in front of us is maybe someone we don't quite like, maybe a childhood bully, maybe a classmate, maybe even a professor.
If I took that container, that bucket of water and tipped it over on top of the head of the person, the water would fall on to them very quickly. Water moves very easily, because water has a low viscosity. It doesn't have a big resistance to flow. It will flow easily. So, we say if you flow easily, you have a low viscosity.
If we took that bucket of honey though and we tipped it over, we would say that honey is more viscous. Honey moves very slowly. It wouldn't be able to dump all of the content on to the person's head. It would move very slowly. If you move very slowly, you're viscous.
We're going to say that gases, gases have a low viscosity. They move very easily. They're bouncing off the walls, bouncing everywhere. Gases have a low viscosity. Liquids will also have a low viscosity. The water we talked about, water flows easily, so we'd say that water has a low viscosity. Solids are kind of slow. So we're going to say solids have a high viscosity. They don't move very easily.
Now, for solids, how could we make them less viscous, make them move faster? You can apply heat. We're going to say, if you increase the temperature of a substance, then you excite that molecules in that substance and then you decrease viscosity. Just remember that, increasing temperature lowers viscosity. Increasing temperature makes you move faster. If you move faster, you're less viscous.
What we're going to do now, and we've seen all the different types of explanations for the three states of matter and we're going to pay very close attention to our gases. We're going to say that the gas is distinct from the liquids and the solids. Because it's so much more compressible, because it's more greatly affected by temperature and pressure than the other two, that's where we're going to pay so much attention to the gases.
We're going to pay attention to the gases and help us formed the ideal gas law. That's what these sets of videos are going to be focused on. Just the ideal gas law, the different types of matter that exists especially gas.
Guys, just remember, when it comes to gases, they're very distinct from the other two and because of that we're going to pay very close attention to them and the effects that happen to them when we messed around with the pressure, messed around with the temperature and play around with the volume. 

The closeness of molecules within the three phases of matter affects how they respond to changes in volume, pressure and temperature.