Practice: Provide the n, l and ml value for each of the given orbitals.

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The **4 Quantum Numbers** provide us the coordinates to find the theoretical location of an electron.

Concept #1: The Quantum Mechanical Picture of the Atom

**Transcript**

We're going to take a look at the quantum mechanical picture of the atom.

What we need to realize is that the main atomic sub-levels are s, p, d, and f. These are also sometimes referred to as sub-orbitals, but we're going to call them for right now, sub-levels, s, p, d, and f. We're going to say each sub-level has a set of atomic or electronic orbitals and what I mean by that are these individual lines. Each of these individual lines represents an electron orbital or atomic orbital. We're going to say each of these orbitals, electron orbitals, can hold up to two electrons.

Concept #2: The Quantum Sublevels

**Transcript**

The s sub-level has one electron orbital, therefore, s can hold a maximum of two electrons. The p sublevel has three electron orbitals, each one can hold up to two, so we have six maximum in the p sublevel.

Also remember that each one of these sub-levels has a shape distinct to them. In s, we only have one electron orbital, so we only have one shape and it's a sphere.

For p, p has three electron orbitals each of them has their own shape. P has three dumbbells. And these dumbbells reside on different axes. Here, this would be px because it resides on the x-axis. This would be py because it resides on the y. Then these would be pz because they reside on the z-axis.

We're going to say that the d sublevel has five electron orbitals, each one can hold two, so the d sublevel can hold a maximum of ten electrons. We're going to say that in the d we're going to have four, four-leaf clovers, so these first four are all four-leaf clovers. And then the last one, the fifth one, looks like a dumbbell with a ring around it. Remember these shapes. These shapes are distinct.

Then finally, we're going to say that the f sub-level has 7 electron orbitals, seven unique shapes. And then we're going to say because it has seven electron orbitals, it can hold a maximum of 14 electrons. We're going to say that for the f sub-level, three of them kind of look like this. Then we're going to say four of them look like double four-leaf clovers.

These shapes are going to become important for later on when we're asked questions just based on these shape of sub-levels. Just remember, we have four sub-levels, s, p, d, and d. There's more than just these four, but these are the main four that we deal with on a typical basis in quantum mechanical views in chemistry. There's four sub-levels, each sub-level has a different number of electron orbitals, each electron orbital can hold up to two electrons.

Remember these fundamentals because from here we're going to move on to the quantum numbers. The quantum numbers are based on these simple ideas which help build up to more complex ones later on.

The main atomic sub-levels are the ** s, p, d** and

Concept #3: The Principal Quantum Number (n)

**Transcript**

In the next video, we are going to cover a topic that is incredibly important when it comes to these sets of videos. It’s all about the quantum numbers. Now, we are going to say when it comes to an atomic orbital or an electron orbital we talk about three quantum numbers. Now, the thing is there are four quantum numbers, it just happens to be that the first three only talk about the atomic orbital. The fourth quantum number doesn’t talk about the atomic orbital at all; it talks about the spin of the electron. So that’s why we are not talking about the fourth quantum number just yet.

Now we are going to say the first quantum number is referred to as the Principal Quantum number and it deals with the atomic orbital’s size and energy. It tells us the relative distance of the electron from the nucleus. We are going to say it uses the variable n and it tells us the shell number of the electron.

We’ve seen this before where we see n equals four or n equals two. We said that told us that the electron was found in the fourth shell or the second shell. Well, we should realize that it’s related to our Principal Quantum number. It basically tells us how far away we are from the nucleus and basically how much energy and size is involved with those particular electrons.

The principal quantum number tells us the **size **and **energy** of an electron orbital.

Concept #4: Calculate the principal quantum number of each atomic sublevel.

7p, 5s, 3d, 4f

**Transcript**

Now for the first example, it says calculate the principal quantum number of each atomic sub-level.

It sounds complicated but it’s really easy. We are going to say that the principal quantum number is just based on the number that goes in front of the sub-level letter. So in the first one (a) 7p, the number that is in front of p is a 7. So all we would say here is that n equals 7. It’s as simple as that. For (b) 5s, the number in front of s is a 5, so n equals 5. For (c) it would be n equals 3, and for (d) it would be n equals 4.

Just remember the number that goes in front of the sub-level letter represents our principal quantum number. It’s as easy as that.

Now we are going to say that the electron capacity of each shell can be determined by using the formula: 2n squared. Where n represents the shell number. So if we are in the first shell we can figure out how many electrons the first shell holds by using this formula. It would just be 2 times 1 squared. So that would just be 2. If we are in the second shell it would be 2 times two squared. So that would be 2 times 4 which would be 8. So the second shell can hold a maximum of 8 electrons. For the third shell, it would be 2 times 3 squared. So it would be 2 times 9, so that would be 18. And then finally four, it would be 2 time 4 squared which is 2 times 16, which is 32.

Now we are going to say that I only went up to four but there is more than four shells, electron shells. The number of shells is based on the number of periods of the periodic table. If you guys remember we say that groups go vertical, up and down right? Side to side, those are our periods. On our periodic table, there are seven periods. So that means we go up to shell number seven when it comes to elements.

And, the more and more elements we discover or create in the lab the more periods we are going to add to the periodic table. The periodic table is not static; it is always changing, ever evolving and getting bigger and bigger. So eventually it’s going to come to a point where we are going to go beyond shell number seven to shell number eight, shell number nine; who knows. It all depends on how far we are willing to push, find, and create new elements.

Now just remember period number is a reflection of the electron shell number. So that was our first quantum number principal.

Concept #5: The Angular Momentum Quantum Number (l)

**Transcript**

The next one is called our angular momentum quantum number. This one deals with the shape. So remember this one deals with the shape of the atomic orbital. Remember all those shapes that I had you memorize for s, p, d and f, those shapes are determined by this quantum number, the angular momentum quantum number.

And we are going to say each atomic orbital has a specific shape, which we just said, and we say that the variable for the angular momentum quantum number is L, and we are also going to say that it also uses the formula n minus 1. And we will see when do we use the L value and when do we use the n minus 1 value.

Now if we know the sub-level letter we know what the L value is. So, if the sub-level is s then L is 0. If it’s p, it’s 1, d it’s 2, f it’s 3. Remember I told you that there’s more than just those four sub-levels, it goes beyond f. We have g, we also have h. Usually you don’t see g and h, but just realize that those exist as well. And, each of them, if you know the sub-level letter, then you know what the L value is.

Now, if we don’t know what the sub-level letter that’s when we use this formula: n minus 1. We will see who that works when we put to practice calculating things and dealing with the quantum numbers.

So, so far we’ve done the principal, now we’ve just done the angular momentum. If we come back up we could figure out what the L value is for each of these because we are going to say that the number designates our n value, but the letter, the sub-level letter designates our L value. So if it’s p, L is 1. If it’s s, L is 0. If it’s d, L is 2. If it’s f, L is 3.

So far we know the first two quantum numbers. Now it’s time to take a look at the third one.

The **angular momentum quantum number**, also known as the **azimuthal quantum number**, tells us the shape of the electron orbitals.

Concept #6: The Magnetic Quantum Number (m_{L})

**Transcript**

We are going to say that the third quantum number is known as the magnetic quantum number and this deals with the orientation of the orbital in space around the nucleus. We are going to say it is a range of the previous quantum number -l to +l. We will see what that means. And, we are going to say that it uses the variable ML.

Now here I said if we know what the sub-level letter is then we know what the L value is. We are going to say that our magnetic quantum number our ML is just the range of our L. What the heck does that mean? Well, if L is zero is there such a thing as positive and negative zero? You realize that there isn’t, right? There is no such thing as positive zero or negative zero. Zero is just zero. So ML would be zero as well.

But, when L is one, remember there is such a thing as positive one or negative one. So, ML would be negative one to positive one and all the whole number in between. So it would be negative one, zero, positive one. If L is two then ML is negative two to positive two and all the whole numbers in between. So the range would be negative two, negative one, zero, plus one, plus two. And then if we go here, ML would be negative three, negative two, negative one, zero, plus one, plus two, plus three.

I am going to take myself out because we are going to talk about one more thing guys.

Now how many electron orbitals does the s have? If you guys remember, it has one, right? There it goes right there. How many electron orbitals does p have? It has three. How many electron orbitals does the d have? It had five. And, how many electron orbitals does the f have? F has seven.

And, you’ll see that I just underlined each one of these numbers because each of those numbers is actually a label for each one of those electron orbitals. It’s a way of describing which electron orbital are we talking about within each sub-level. So, p has three electron orbitals that’s why it can hold up to six electrons. This electron orbital will be negative one as its designation, this would be zero, this would be positive one. D, d has five electron orbitals, and we’d say that this one would be called negative two, this one would be called negative one, this one would be zero, plus one, plus two.

So remember that image that we looked at, that page where it talked about the quantum mechanical picture of the atom. Just put these numbers underneath each one of those electron orbitals. That’s a way of us labeling and identifying each one of those individual electron orbitals based on their sub-level.

So, as you can see the quantum numbers are not just simply separated from each other; they build on top of each other. They are connected to one another, and the more problems we do together you’ll see these connections. Quantum mechanics and quantum numbers can be a bit challenging, but just remember these fundamental principles and it will help you to better understand this advanced topic.

The **magnetic quantum number **deals with the orientation of the orbital in the space around the nucleus.

Example #1: What l or m_{l} values are allowed if n = 2? How many orbitals exist for n = 2?

How many electrons can have the following quantum sets?

a) n = 4

b) n = 3, l = 1

c) n = 4, m_{L} = -2

d) n = 5, l = 2, m_{L} = -2

Practice: Provide the n, l and ml value for each of the given orbitals.

Practice: State all the l and ml values possible if the principal quantum number is equal to 3.

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Concept #1: The Quantum Mechanical Picture of the Atom

Concept #2: The Quantum Sublevels

Concept #3: The Principal Quantum Number (n)

Concept #4: Electron Capacity

Concept #5: The Angular Momentum Quantum Number (l)

Concept #6: The Magnetic Quantum Number (mL)

Example #1: What l or ml values are allowed if n = 2? How ma...

Practice #1: Provide the n, l and ml value for each of the g...

Practice #2: State all the l and ml values possible if the p...

Which response lists all the true statements about the four quantum numbers?
I. n = principal quantum number, n = 0, 1, 2, 3, ...
II. l = angular momentum quantum number, l = 0, 1, 2, 3, ... ., ( n+1)
III. ml = magnetic quantum number, ml = (-l) ...., 0, .. (+l)
a) I, II, and III
b) I and III
c) I and II
d) II and III
e) III only

What is the lowest numbered principal energy level in which d orbitals are found?
a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 4
e. 5

What value of angular momentum (l) is represented by an f orbital?
a. 0
b. 1
c. 2
d. 3
e. 4

Which electron is, on average, closer to the nucleus: an electron in a 2s orbital or an electron in a 3s orbital?

Which electron is, on average, farther to the nucleus: an electron in a 3p orbital or an electron in a 4p orbital?

Which one of the following set of quantum numbers would not be allowed?
A) n = 3, ℓ = 2, mℓ = 1
B) n = 3, ℓ = 1, mℓ = -1
C) n = 3, ℓ = 0, mℓ = 0
D) n = 3, ℓ = 2, mℓ = -1
E) n = 3, ℓ = 3, mℓ = 1

How many orbitals are allowed in a subshell if the azimuthal quantum number is 3?
(a) 1
(b) 3
(c) 5
(d) 7
(e) 9

In a p x orbital, the subscript x denotes which of the following?
a. the energy of an electron
b. the spin of an electron in that orbital
c. the probability of the shell
d. the size of the orbital
e. the axis along which the orbital is aligned

All of the orbitals in a given subshell (energy sublevel) have the same value of the __________ quantum number.
A) azimuthal
B) magnetic
C) principal
D) A and B
E) B and C

There are __________ possible values for the magnetic quantum number of an electron in a 5f subshell.
A) 7
B) 3
C) 14
D) 5
E) 1

Which set of quantum numbers is correct and consistent for an electron with n = 3?
a. l = 3 , m1 = – 3
b. l = 2 , m1 = + 2
c. l = 2 , m1 = + 3
d. l = 4 , m1 = – 1

What are the possible values of n and ml for an electron in a 4d orbital?
A. n = 1, 2, 3, or 4, and ml = -2, -1, 0, +1, or +2
B. n = 1, 2, 3, or 4, and ml = 2
C. n = 4 and ml = 3
D. n = 4 and ml = -2, -1, 0, +1, or +2
E. n = 5 and ml = -2, -1, 0, +1, or +2

Identify the correct values for a 4f sublevel.
a. n=3, l=1, ml=0
b. n=2, l=1, ml=-2
c. n=1, l=0, ml=0
d. n=2, l=0, ml=0
e. n=4, l=3, ml=-2

A. How many hydrogen atom orbitals will have the following quantum numbers?
1. n = 4 __________
2. n = 4 and l = 2 __________
3. n = 4 and m l = 2 __________
4. n = 4, l = 2, and m l = 2 __________
B. The number of orbitals with n = 2 is less than / equal to / greater than (circle one) the number of orbitals with l = 2.
Explain your reasoning.

For n = 7 and ℓ = 4, what is m ℓ ?
1. 18
2. 0, 1, 2, 3
3. 9
4. 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
5. −4, −3, −2, −1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4

What is the lowest numbered principal energy level in which d orbitals are found?
A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4
E. 5

Provide the n, l and ml value for each of the given orbitals.
a. 22f n =
l =
m l =
b. 5d n =
l =
m l =

Give the number of possible orbitals in an H atom with the values: n = 3 l, l = 1
a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 4
e. an infinite number

Which of the following quantum numbers is often designated by the letters s, p, d, f, and g instead of numbers?
a) n
b) l
c) m
d) s
e) all of these

Which is not a possible ml value for a subshell that has the following: l = 2
a. +3
b. –1
c. +2
d. 0
e. -2
f. All these are possible

When l = 3, what set of orbitals is designated?
a) g
b) p
c) f
d) d
e) s

What is the maximum number of orbitals having l = 1?
a) zero
b) one
c) three
d) five
e) nine

The number of orbitals having a given value of n and l is equal to
A. 2l +1
B. n – 1
C. 2
D. n + l
E. two times the number of lobes in each orbital

List all the orbitals in each principal level. Specify the three quantum numbers for each orbital.n = 2

List all the orbitals in each principal level. Specify the three quantum numbers for each orbital.n = 3

What are the similarities and differences between the 1 s and 2 s orbitals of the hydrogen atom?

In what sense does a 2 p orbital have directional character? Compare the "directional" characteristics of the px and dx2 - y2 orbitals (that is, in what direction or region of space is the electron density concentrated?).

When the spectrum of light from the Sun is examined in high resolution in an experiment similar to that illustrated in Figure 6.11 in the textbook, dark lines are evident. These are called Fraunhofer lines, after the scientist who studied them extensively in the early nineteenth century. Altogether, about 25,000 lines have been identified in the solar spectrum between 2950 Å and 10,000 Å. The Fraunhofer lines are attributed to absorption of certain wavelengths of the Suns "white" light by gaseous elements in the Suns atmosphere.If a scientist wanted to know which Fraunhofer lines belonged to a given element, say neon, what experiments could she conduct here on Earth to provide data?

Bohrs model can be used for hydrogen-like ions - ions that have only one electron, such as He+ and Li2+.Why is the Bohr model applicable to He+ ions but not to neutral He atoms?

If human height were quantized in 1-foot increments, what would happen to the height of a child as she grows up?

Do you think that the formation of a rainbow is more a demonstration of the wave-like or particle-like behavior of light?

The speed of sound in dry air at 20 oC is 343 m/s and the lowest frequency sound wave that the human ear can detect is approximately 20
Hz.What type of electromagnetic radiation would that correspond to?

Why is the quantum-mechanical model of the atom important for understanding chemistry?

Label each of the following statements as true or false. For those that are false, correct the statement.X-rays travel faster than microwaves.

Our bodies are penetrated by X-rays but not by visible light. Is this because X-rays travel faster than visible light?

An AM radio station broadcasts at 1030 kHz , and its FM partner broadcasts at 98.4 MHz .Compare the energy of the photons emitted by the AM radio station with the energy of the photons emitted by the FM radio station.

Suppose that, in an alternate universe, the possible values of ml are the integer values including 0 ranging from
- l-1
to
l+1
(instead of simply - l to + l). How many orbitals exist in each sublevel in the alternate universe?p sublevel

Suppose that, in an alternate universe, the possible values of ml are the integer values including 0 ranging from
- l-1
to
l+1
(instead of simply - l to + l). How many orbitals exist in each sublevel in the alternate universe?d sublevel

What are all the possible values of ml if l = 2 (a d orbital)?

If ml is 2, what are the possible values for l (for all atoms in their ground states that are known to exist)?

A certain orbital of the hydrogen atom has n = 4 and l = 2.What are the possible values of ml for this orbital?

What values of l are possible for n = 3?

What are the basic SI units for the speed of light?

Give the numerical value of l corresponding to 3p.

Give the numerical value of l corresponding to 4f.

Give the numerical value of l corresponding to 5d.

The accompanying drawing
shows a contour plot for a dyz
orbital. Consider the quantum
numbers that could potentially
correspond to this orbital.
What is the smallest possible
value of the principal quantum
number, n?

The average distance from the nucleus of a 3 s electron in a chlorine atom is smaller than that for a 3 p electron. In light of this fact, which orbital is higher in energy?

Give the numerical value of n corresponding to 2s.

What does the principal quantum number determine?

Give the numerical value of n corresponding to 4f.

Give the numerical value of n corresponding to 5d.

For the hydrogen atom, list the following orbitals in order of decreasing energy (that is, most unstable ones first): 4 f, 6 s, 3 d, 1 s, 2 p.

If two electrons in the same atom have the same value of "l", they are a. in the same orbital. b. in the same sublevel, but not necessarily in the same level. c. in different levels and in different shaped orbitals. d. in the same level, but different sublevel. e. None of the above

Which of the following quantum numbers describes the shape of an orbital?a. principal quantum numberb. Schrodinger quantum numberc. spin quantum numberd. angular momentum quantum numbere. magnetic quantum number

What does the magnetic quantum number determine?a. the energy of an orbitalb. the overall size of an atomc. the shape of the orbital .d. the energy of the electron on the outer shelle. the orientation of the orbitalf. the possible number of electrons on particular orbitalg. the overall size of an orbital

Which of the following sets of quantum numbers is possible?A. n = 3, l = 3, ml = 0B. n = 3, l = 2, ml = -3C. n = -3, l = -2, ml = -2D. n = 3, l = 1, ml = 0E. n = 3, l = 2, ml = 1/2

Which of the following concepts/models/phenomena are related to “quantized energy levels”? a. Fireworksb. Neils Bohr’s model for the atomc. The “line spectra” of helium emissiond. Both (a) and (b)e. All if the above

a. For n=4, what are the possible values of l?b. For l=2, what are the possible values of m l?c. If ml is 2, what are the possible values for l?

If ℓ= 2, what can you deduce about n?n = 2?n > 2?n ≥ 2?n < 2?n ≤ 2?

What are the possible values of L for each value of n?
A)1
B)2
C)3
D)4

For an electron that has quantum numbers n = 3 and m l = 2, which of the following is true?A. it must have the quantum number m s = + 2B. it must have the quantum number l = 1C. it may have the quantum numbers, l = 0, 1, 2D. it must have the quantum number l = 2E. none of these answers apply to this electron

Which of the following combinations of n and l represent real orbitals and which are impossible? Drag the appropriate items to their respective bins.2s, 5d, 3f, 3s

Which subshell (for example, 1s) is designated by each set of quantum numbers below?a. n=2, l=1b. n=4, l=3c. n=5, l=1d. n=3, l=2

(a) For n = 4, what are the possible values of l ?

(b) For l = 2, what are the possible values of m l?

(c) If m l is 2, what are the possible values for l?

How many possible values for l and m l are there when (a) n = 5?

Give the numerical values of n and l corresponding to each of the following orbital designations: (a) 3p

Give the values for n, l, and m l for (a) each orbital in the 2p subshell

Which of the following represent impossible combinations of n and l: (a) 1p, (b) 4s, (c) 5f, (d) 2d?

For the table that follows, write which orbital goes with the quantum numbers. Don’t worry about x, y, z subscripts. If the quantum numbers are not allowed, write “not allowed.”

If an electron has a principal quantum number (n) of 3 and an angular momentum quantum number (I) of 2, the subshell designation is ____ .a. 3p b. 3d c. 4s d. 4p e. 4d

Which quantum numbers must be the same for the orbitals that they designate to be degenerate in a one-electron system (such as hydrogen)?a) n, l, and m lb) n and l onlyc) l and mld) ml and only e) n only

What are the possible values of l for each of the following values of n? n=1,2,3,4.

Which of the following is not a valid magnetic quantum number for the 3d set of orbitals?a. 1b. 2c. 0d. -2e. -3

For a hydrogen atom, the energy of a 5p orbital is (circle one)1) lower than the same as higher than the energy of a 5s orbital.2) lower than the same as higher than the energy of a 4f orbital.

Which statement about quantum numbers is incorrect? Answer (e) if they are all correct or all incorrect.a. The principal quantum number cannot equal zero.b. When n = 3, the angular quantum number can be equal to 0, 1, or 2.c. For an angular quantum number equal to 1, the magnetic quantum number can be +1, 0, or -1.d. For any value of the angular quantum number (l), there are 2(2l+1) values of the magnetic quantum number.e. All the above statements are correct or all are incorrect.

Which set of quantum numbers (principal, angular and magnetic) are not valid?Set (1) 4, 2, -3Set (2) 3, 2, -2Set (3) 2, 2, +1a. Sets (1) and (2)b. Sets (2) and (3)c. Sets (1) and (3)d. all three setse. only one or none of these sets.

What label is given to a subshell or orbital with the quantum numbers n = 5 and l = 3?a. 5sb. 5pc. 5dd. 5fe. 5g

The quantum number ______ defines the ________________ of an orbital. Choose which is correct.a. n defines the size of the orbitalb. ms defines the spin of the electronc. l defines the shape of the orbitald. ml defines the orientation in space of the orbitale. all the above are correct.

Of the following listed orbital choices - 1p, 2d, 3d, & 4f , only ___________ can exist.a. 1pb. 3dc. 2d and 3dd. 3d, and 4fe. 4f

Which match is incorrect?a) de Broglie Predicted that matter had a wave natureb) Planck Proposed that energy is released/absorbed in quantized packets of a photon c) Bohr Electron in hydrogen can only occupy orbits with energies of fixed valued) Heisenberg Proposed that electrons orbit the nucleus in well-defined spherical orbitse) Einstein Radiant energy is quantized in packets called photons

What are the possible values of n and m l for an electron in a 5d orbital?a) n = 1,2,3,4, or 5 and m l = 1b) n = 1,2,3,4 or 5 and m l = -2, -1, 0, +1, or +2c) n = 4 and m l = -1, 0, or ld) n = 5 and m l = 2e) n = 5 and m l = -2, -1, 0, +1 or +2

How many different values of l are possible in the fourth principal level?A. 0B. 1C. 2D. 3E. 4

If two electrons in the same atom have the same values of “n” and "l", they areA. In the same energy sublevel.B. In a different energy level.C. In the same orbital.D. In differently-shaped orbitals.E. In orbitals with the same orientation

How many sublevels are contained in the second shell (n=2) of a given atom?A) 1B) 4C) 9D) 3E) 2

Set(s) of possible values of m ℓ areA) -4; -3; -2; -1; 0; +1; +2; +3; +4B) -3; -2; -1; 0; +1; +2; +3C) -2; -1; 0; +1; +2D) -1; 0; +1E) 0 Select the best choice for n = 3.1. only B, C, D, and E2. only E3. only B4. A, B, C, D, and E5. only D6. only C7. only D and E8. only C, D, and E

Which subshell (for example, 1s) is designated by each set of quantum numbers below? n = 2, l = 0 n = 4, l= 0 n = 5, l = 4 n = 3, l = 2

What is the only possible value of mℓ for an electron in an s orbital?

Can an electron in an atom be in an energy level described by the set of quantum numbers n = 5, ℓ = 3, m ℓ = -2?1. No, because m ℓ cannot be negative.2. No, because ml must be equal to ±1.3. Yes4. No, because n cannot be as large as 5.5. No, because ℓ must be equal to n -1.

The existence of discrete (quantized) energy levels in an atom may be inferred from (A) experiments on the photoelectric effect.(B) diffraction of electrons by crystals.(C) X-ray diffraction by crystals(D) atomic line spectra

Which of the following experiments in quantum mechanics is NOT correctly summarized?a. Photoelectric Effect: High intensity, high energy light cannot eject electrons from a metal plate. This means energy cannot be transferred from light to electrons.b. Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle: The more precisely you know the position of an electron, the less precisely you can know its velocityc. Atomic emission spectra: When Argon gas is heated, the gas emits light with discrete energy levels, rather than a continuous spectrum. This indicates that electrons are not found at random energy levels in an atom, but at energy levels that are quantized.d. Electron Diffraction: When firing electrons one at a time toward at a grating, an interference pattern is generated. This indicates that electrons behave like waves.

The number of orbitals in an f subshell isa) 1b) 2c) 3 d) 5e) 7

Atomic orbitals developed using quantum mechanicsA) describe regions of space in which one is most likely to find an electron.B) describe exact paths for electron motion.C) give a description of the atomic structure which is essentially the same as the Bohr model.D) allow scientists to calculate an exact volume for the hydrogen atom.E) are in conflict with the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle.

The number of orbitals having a given value of (the letter) l is equal toa) 2l + 1b) 2n + 1c) 2ml + 1d) n + m le) 1 + m l

Why is the electron in a Bohr hydrogen atom bound less tightly when it has a quantum number of 3 than when it has a quantum number of 1?

Which statement about atomic orbitals and quantum numbers is correct?A. The maximum number of orbitals with the quantum number n = 3 is 18.B. There are five 2d orbitals.C. The angular momentum quantum number is related to the shape of the orbital.D. A 4f orbital is not possible.E. None of the above are true.

Which of the orbitals 2d, 3d, 3f, 4f, 5g and 5h cannot exist?a) 5g and 5hb) 2d and 3fc) 5hd) 2d, 3f, and 5he) 2d and 5g

Draw and name the five d-orbitals and put on an appropriate Cartesian coordinate axis.

Of the orbitals 1p, 2p, 3f, 4f, 5d, which does quantum theory predict to exist? a) all of themb) 2p, 3f, and 4f onlyc) 2p, 4f, and 5d onlyd) 2p and 4f onlye) 1p and 3f only

How many orbitals are allowed in a subshell if the angular momentum quantum number for electrons in that subshell is 3?a) 3b) 1c) 7d) 5e) 9

The number of orbitals in a 4d subshell is
a) one
b) four
c) five
d) eight
e) sixteen

Which of the following sets of quantum numbers is not allowed?a) n = 3, l = 1, m l = +1b) n = 3, l = 0, m l = 0c) n = 4, l = 2, m l = +2d) n = 4, l = 1, m l = 0e) n = 4, l = 2, m l = +3

What type of orbital is designated when n = 4, l = 3, m l = -1?a) 3pb) 3dc) 4pd) 4de) 4f

What is the maximum number of possible orbitals when l = 4?a) zerob) onec) three d) fivee) nine

Give the numerical value of n corresponding to 3p.

Which set of three quantum numbers does not specify an orbital in the hydrogen atom?a. n = 3; l = 3; m l = −2b. n = 2; l = 1; m l = 1c. n = 3; l = 2; m l = 2d. n = 2; l = 1; m l = 0

Each of the following atomic orbitals is possible excepta) 1sb) 2pc) 3fd) 4d

What is the value of the quantum number l for a 5p orbital?
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4

If l = 2, what can you deduce about n?
a. n = 2
b. n > 2
c. n ≥ 2
d. n < 2
e. n ≤ 2

How many orbitals in an atom can have each of the following designations?
a. 3s
b. 3d
c. 7p
d. n = 3

Which set of quantum numbers cannot specify an orbital?a. n = 2, 𝓁 = 1, m𝓁 = -1b. n = 3, 𝓁 = 2, m𝓁 = 0c. n = 3, 𝓁 = 3, m𝓁 = 2d. n = 4, 𝓁 = 3, m𝓁 = 0

What are the possible values for the quantum numbers n, ℓ, and mℓ?

Identify the following orbital and determine the n and ℓ quantum numbers. Explain your answer.

Identify the following orbital and determine the n and ℓ quantum numbers. Explain your answer.

Identify the following orbital and determine the n and ℓ quantum numbers. Explain your answer.

Which of the following sets of quantum numbers are not allowed in the hydrogen atom? For the sets of quantum numbers that are incorrect, state what is wrong in each set.a. n = 3, ℓ = 2, mℓ = 2b. n = 4, ℓ = 3, mℓ = 4c. n = 0, ℓ = 0, mℓ = 0d. n = 2, ℓ = -1, mℓ = 1

Answer the following question: Without using quantum numbers, describe the differences between the shells, subshells, and orbitals of an atom.

Answer the following question:How do the quantum numbers of the shells, subshells, and orbitals of an atom differ?

Give the n and ℓ values and the number of orbitals for 5 s.

Give the n and ℓ values and the number of orbitals for 3 p.

Give the n and ℓ values and the number of orbitals for 4 f.

Give the n and ℓ values and the number of orbitals for 6 g.

Give the n and ℓ values and the number of orbitals for 4 s.

Give the n and ℓ values and the number of orbitals for 3 d.

Is the following combination allowed: n = 2; ℓ = 0; mℓ = -1? If not, show two ways to correct it.

Is the following combination allowed: n = 4; ℓ = 3; mℓ = -1? If not, show two ways to correct it.

Is the following combination allowed: n = 3; ℓ = 1; mℓ = 0? If not, show two ways to correct it.

Is the following combination allowed: n = 5; ℓ = 2; mℓ = +3? If not, show two ways to correct it.

Is the following combination allowed: n = 1; ℓ = 0; mℓ = 0? If not, show two ways to correct it.

List the quantum numbers associated with all of the 5d orbitals. How many 5d orbitals exist?

Is the following combination allowed: n = 2; ℓ = 2; mℓ = +1? If not, show two ways to correct it.

Is the following combination allowed: n = 7; ℓ = 1; mℓ = +2? If not, show two ways to correct it.

Is the following combination allowed: n = 3; ℓ = 1; mℓ = -2? If not, show two ways to correct it.

Consider the orbitals shown here in outline.Write a set of quantum numbers for an electron in an orbital of type (x) in a shell with n = 4. Of an orbital of type (y) in a shell with n = 2. Of an orbital of type (z) in a shell with n = 3.

Consider the orbitals shown here in outline.What are the possible l and ml values for an orbital of type (x)? Of type (y)? Of type (z)?

Which set of three quantum numbers does not specify an orbital in the hydrogen atom?a) n = 2; 𝓁 = 1; m𝓁 = -1b) n = 3; 𝓁 = 3; m𝓁 = -2c) n = 2; 𝓁 = 0; m𝓁 = 0d) n = 3; 𝓁 = 2; m𝓁 = 2

Are the following statements true for the hydrogen atom only, true for all atoms, or not true for any atoms?a. The principal quantum number completely determines the energy of a given electron.b. The angular momentum quantum number, ℓ, determinesthe shapes of the atomic orbitals.c. The magnetic quantum number, m ℓ, determines the direction that the atomic orbitals point in space.

You may want to reference (Pages 228 - 231) Section 6.5 while completing this problem.Give the possible values for n, l, and ml m_ellfor each orbital in the 2p subshell.

You may want to reference (Pages 228 - 231) Section 6.5 while completing this problem.Give the possible values for n, l, and ml for each orbital in the 5d subshell.

Which of the following represent impossible combinations of n and l: (a) 1p, (b) 4s, (c) 5f, (d) 2d?

Which of the following orbital designations are incorrect: 1 s, 1p, 7d, 9s, 3f, 4f, 2d?

If ml = 4, what can you say about l?
a. l = 4
b. l > 4
c. l ≥ 4
d. l < 4
e. l ≤ 4

Which set of quantum numbers cannot occur together to specify an orbital?
a. n=3,l=-3,ml=0
b. n=2,l=1,ml=-1
c. n=3,l=1,ml=-1
d. n=4,l=3,ml=3

Which of the following statements is(are) true?a. The 2s orbital in the hydrogen atom is larger than the 3 s orbital also in the hydrogen atom.b. The Bohr model of the hydrogen atom has been found to be incorrect.c. The hydrogen atom has quantized energy levels.d. An orbital is the same as a Bohr orbit.e. The third energy level has three sublevels, the s, p, and d sublevels.

Consider the notes that can be played on a piano.In this analogy, would a violin be continuous or quantized?

How are the Bohr model and the Rutherford model of the atom similar? How are they different?

Give all possible m ℓ values for orbitals that have the following: ℓ = 3.

Give all possible m ℓ values for orbitals that have the following: n = 2.

Give all possible m ℓ values for orbitals that have the following: n = 6, ℓ = 1.

Give the sublevel designation, the allowable mℓ values, and the number of orbitals for n = 4, ℓ = 2.

Give the sublevel designation, the allowable mℓ values, and the number of orbitals for n = 5, ℓ = 1.

Give the sublevel designation, the allowable mℓ values, and the number of orbitals for n = 6, ℓ = 3

Give the sublevel designation, the allowable mℓ values, and the number of orbitals for n = 2, ℓ = 0.

Give the sublevel designation, the allowable mℓ values, and the number of orbitals for n = 3, ℓ = 2.

List the quantum numbers associated with all of the 5d orbitals. How many 5d orbitals exist?

How many orbitals in an atom can have the designation 5 p, 3dz 2, 4d, n = 5, n = 4?

You may want to reference (Pages 232 - 235) Section 6.6 while completing this problem.The contour representation of one of the orbitals for the n = 3 shell of a hydrogen atom is shown in the figure below.In which of the following ways would you modify this sketch if the value of the magnetic quantum number, m𝓁, were to change?(i) It would be drawn larger(ii) The number of lobes would change(iii) The lobes of the orbital would point in a different direction(iv) There would be no change in the sketch

What are all the possible values of m l if l = 0 (an s orbital)?

You may want to reference(Pages 227 - 231)Section 6.5 while completing this problem.For the table that follows, indicate which orbital corresponds to each set of quantum numbers. Ignore x, y, and z subscripts. If the
quantum numbers are not allowed (i.e., contain an illegitimate value), indicate that by using the "not allowed" label.

How many possible combinations are there for the values of l and ml when exttip{n}{nA} = 2?

How many orbitals in an atom can have the designation 5 f ?

Give all possible m ℓ values for orbitals that have the following: ℓ = 2.

Give all possible m ℓ values for orbitals that have the following: n = 1.

Identify the subshell in which electrons with the following quantum numbers are found:n = 2, l = 1

What is the value of the angular momentum quantum number associated with 5d.

How do the 2s and 3p orbitals differ from the 1s and 2p orbitals?

The following combination is not allowed: n = 7; ℓ = 2; mℓ = +3. If n and mℓ are correct, change the ℓ value to create an allowable combination.

The accompanying drawing
shows a contour plot for a dyz orbital. Consider the quantum numbers that could potentially correspond to this orbital.What is the value of the angular momentum
quantum number, l?

The contour representation of one of the orbitals for the n = 3 shell of a hydrogen atom is shown in the figure below.What is the quantum number ell for this orbital?

For an He+ ion, do the 2s and 2p orbitals have the same energy? If we add one electron to form the He atom, would your answer change?

What are the possible values of l for each of the following values of n? n = 1

What are the possible values of l for each of the following values of n? n = 2

What are the possible values of l for each of the following values of n? n = 3

What are the possible values of the angular momentum quantum number (l) when n = 4?

What are the possible values for the magnetic quantum number (ml ) when l = 2?

What is the value of the principal quantum number associated with 5d.

A certain quantum-mechanical system has the energy levels shown in the accompanying diagram. The energy levels are indexed by a single quantum number n that is an integer.As drawn, which quantum numbers are involved in the transition that requires the most energy?

Use the relative size of the 3 s orbital below to answer the question about orbitals A–D.Which orbital has the highest energy? Lowest energy?

For the hydrogen atom, list the following orbitals in order of decreasing energy: 3s, 2s, 2p, 5s, 4d.

How many possible combinations are there for the values of l and ml when exttip{n}{nB} = 4?

Which set of quantum numbers (principal, angular and magnetic) are not valid?Set (1) 4, 2, -3Set (2) 3, 2, -2Set (3) 2, 2, +1a. Sets (1) and (2)b. Sets (2) and (3)c. Sets (1) and (3)d. all three setse. only one or none of these sets.

Of the following listed orbital choices - 1p, 2d, 3d, & 4f , only ___________ can exist.a. 1pb. 3d c. 2d and 3dd. 3d, and 4fe. 4f

What is the maximum number of electrons that can occupy individual 2s and 2p orbitals?a. 2 and 2, respectivelyb. 2 and 6, respectivelyc. 2 and 2, respectivelyd. 1 and 2, respectivelye. 1 and 3, respectively

What label is given to a subshell or orbital with the quantum numbers n = 5 and l = 3?a. 5sb. 5pc. 5dd. 5fe. 5g

What are the possible values of n and ml for an electron in a 5d orbital ? A) n = 5 and ml = -2, -1, 0, +1, or +2 B) n = 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 and ml = 2 C) n = 5 and ml = 2 D) n = 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 and ml = -2, -1, 0, +1, or +2

What are the basic SI units for the wavelength of light?

What are the basic SI units for the frequency of light?

What are the values of the quantum numbers associated with the following orbitals: 2p, 3s, and 5d?

Suppose that, in an alternate universe, the possible values of mℓ are the integer values including 0 ranging from -ℓ-1 to ℓ+1 (instead of simply -ℓ to +ℓ). How many orbitals exist in each sublevel in the alternate universe?s sublevel

Suppose that in an alternate universe, the possible values of l are the integer values from 0 to n (instead of 0 to n - 1). Assuming no other differences between this universe and ours, how many orbitals would exist in each level in the alternate universe?n = 1

List all the orbitals in each principal level. Specify the three quantum numbers for each orbital.n = 4

Stars do not all have the same temperature. The color of light
emitted by stars is characteristic of the light emitted by hot
objects. Telescopic photos of three stars are shown below:(i) the Sun, which is classified as a yellow star, (ii) Rigel, in the constellation Orion, which is classified as a blue-white star, and (iii) Betelgeuse, also in Orion, which is classified as a red star.Which of the following principles is relevant to your choice
of answer for Part A: The uncertainty principle, the photoelectric effect, blackbody radiation, or line spectra?

How many possible values for l and m l are there when (a) n = 3?

An electron in a 3d orbital could have which of the following quantum numbers?1. n = 3; ℓ = 3; m ℓ = 12. n = 3; ℓ = 1; m ℓ = -13. n = 3; ℓ= 2; m ℓ = 04. n =3; ℓ = 0; m ℓ = 05. n = 3; ℓ = 1; m ℓ = 26. n = 3; ℓ = 2; m ℓ = -37. n = 2; ℓ = 2; m ℓ = 6

Which set of three quantum numbers does not specify an orbital in the hydrogen atom? Provide step by step explanation.a. n = 2; l = 1; m l = -1b. n = 3; l = 2; m l = 2c. n = 2; l = 0; m l = 0d. n = 3; l = 4; m l = 0

10. The lowest energy shell that contains f orbitals is the shell with n = __________.A) 3B) 2C) 4D) 1E) 5

Which one of the following is TRUE for a 3s orbital?A) The possible values of ml for a 3s orbital are -1, 0, and +1. B) A 3s orbital has 3 radial nodes. C) The principal quantum number for a 3s orbital is 2. D) A 3s orbital is shaped like a peanut. E) The angular momentum quantum number (l) for a 3s orbital is 0.

List all the orbitals in each principal level. Specify the three quantum numbers for each orbital.n = 1

Which of the following represents an impossible combination of the quantum numbers n and l?A) 1sB) 2dC) 3pD) 4dE) 5f

An electron behaves in ways that are at least partially indeterminate.What does this mean?

Which set of quantum numbers is not allowed?a. n = 3, l = 0 , ml = 0b. n = 2, l = 1 , ml = -1c. n = 1, l = 0 , ml = 0d. n = 4, l = 1 , ml = -2

Which of the following is a correct set of quantum numbers for an electron in a 3d orbital? a. n = 3, l = 0, m l = -1 b. n = 3, l = 1, m l = +3 c. n = 3, l = 2, m l = 3 d. n = 3, l = 3, m l = + 2 e. n = 3, l = 2, m l = -2

Which statement about quantum numbers is incorrect? Answer (e) if they are all correct or all incorrect.a. The principal quantum number cannot equal zero.b. When n = 3, the angular quantum number can be equal to 0, 1, or 2.c. For an angular quantum number equal to 1, the magnetic quantum number can be +1, 0, o-1.d. For any value of the angular quantum number (l), there are 2(2l+1) values of the magnetic quantum number.e. All the above statements are correct or all are incorrect.

How many orbitals are contained in the third principal level (n=3) of a given atom?A) 7B) 5C) 9D) 3E) 18

What is the total number of orbitals having n = 4 and l = 2?2 5 16 4 6

How many possible values of ml would there be if l = 20?

Suppose that in an alternate universe, the possible values of l are the integer values from 0 to n (instead of 0 to n - 1). Assuming no other differences between this universe and ours, how many orbitals would exist in each level in the alternate universe?n = 5

What values of ml are possible for l = 2?

What are all the possible values of ml if l = 1 (a p orbital)?

What does the angular momentum quantum number determine in a hydrogen atom?

What are the possible values of the magnetic quantum number m l?a. represented by the formula: m = 2k +1, where k is a positive integerb. all the non-negative integers: 0,1,2,3, etcc. all the positive integers: 1,2,3, etcd. all the integers in range from, -l to +l where l is an angular momentum quantume. number represented by the formula: m = 2l + 1, where l is an angular momentum quantum numberf. all the integer: -3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3, etc.

If mℓ = 3, what can you say about ℓ?a. ℓ = 3?b. ℓ > 3?c. ℓ ≥ 3?d. ℓ <3?e. ℓ≤ 3?

List all possible values of the angular momentum quantum number l for an electron in the M(n=3) shell of an atom.

Suppose that in an alternate universe, the possible values of l are the integer values from 0 to n (instead of 0 to n - 1). Assuming no other differences between this universe and ours, how many orbitals would exist in each level in the alternate universe?n = 2

A baseball pitcher throws a fastball that moves at 95 miles per hour. Does that moving baseball generate matter waves?

What quantum numbers specify these subshells: 1s 4p 5d... n=? l=?

What does the angular momentum quantum number determine? Check all that apply. a) the overall size of an orbitalb) the energy of the electron on the outer shellc) the possible number of electrons on particular orbitald) the energy of an orbitale) the orientation of the orbitalf) the shape of the orbitalg) the overall size of an atom

What does the magnetic quantum number determine? Check all that apply.a) the shape of the orbitalb) the overall size of an orbitalc) the energy of the electron on the outer shelld) the possible number of electrons on particular orbitale) the energy of an orbitalf) the orientation of the orbitalg) the overall size of an atom

What are the possible values of mℓ for an electron in a d orbital? Express your answer numerically with sequential values separated by commas.

How many sublevels are in the n = 3 level?How many orbitals are in the n = 3 level?What is the maximum number of electrons in the n = 3 level?

When l = 1 what can you deduce about n and if m l = 4 what can you say about quantum number l?

How do the 4d orbitals differ from the 3d orbitals?

In a many-electron atom, can we predict unambiguously whether the 4s orbital is lower or higher in energy than the 3d orbitals?

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