Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular ForcesWorksheetSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds

Intermolecular Forces are the attractive forces between 2 molecules. Intramolecular Forces are the bonding forces within a molecule. 

Intermolecular vs. Intramolecular Forces

Concept #1: Understanding the difference between intermolecular and intramolecular forces 

Transcript

We are going to say when we are looking at any type of molecular substance, we have to realize that there were two types of forces at work.
So if we take a look at water, you are going to discover that there are two major forces. We’re going to say that the first major force is called intramolecular force. Intra means that the force operates within the molecule. So inside of water, the force is an intramolecular force. Intramolecular forces influence the chemical properties of water.
Remember, if we were drawing water, oxygen goes in the center. It has 6 valence electrons because it’s in group 6A. Hydrogens are on the outside because they never go in the center. They have only one valence electron because they are in group 1A and they only make one bond. So water would look like that. So let me draw it down here actually. So remember, we’d say that the forces operating inside the water are intramolecular forces.
Now, other than intramolecular forces, we have intermolecular forces. Now, intermolecular forces are the forces between different molecules. So here we have water and it can interact with the compound we are just going to say is B, compound B. Their interaction is an intermolecular force interaction. And we are going to say, intermolecular forces don’t influence the chemical properties of a compound, they influence the physical properties.
What do I mean by physical properties? I mean like boiling point, something called vapor pressure, freezing point, melting point. These are the kinds of properties that intermolecular forces interact and influence. We’ll see those later on but just realize the difference between intra and inter. intra is within; inter is between, between different compounds.
We are going to say that there are five major types of intermolecular forces that you should be aware of. And here we are going to go from the strongest intermolecular to the weakest intermolecular. 

Intermolecular forces influence the physical properties of compounds, whereas intramolecular forces influence the chemical properties of compounds. 

Concept #2: The First and Strongest Intermolecular Force

Transcript

First intermolecular force is the force that exists between an ion and a polar compound, so this is called ion-dipole. Now, an example of ion-dipole is we could have NaCl, remember this is sodium chloride, it’s ionic, and we throw it into water. Now, ionic compounds are polar compounds. And they’re highly polar because, remember, we’ve talked about this before, we say if your difference in electronegativity is 0.4 or greater, you are going to be polar. If it’s greater than 1.7 and higher, you’re going to be ionic. So the difference in their electronegative numbers is very high, so it’s going to be a polar type of compound. All ionic compounds are polar.
And we’re going to learn that water, which is called the universal solvent, it’s called universal because it’s highly polar, so it dissolves a lot of polar things. So polar ionic compound, polar solvent, which is water, polar and polar will interact. So the polar water is going to split this up into its ions. Na is group 1A so it’s going to be Na+ aqueous plus Cl- aqueous . Remember Cl is in group 7A, so it’s -1. Now, what does aqueous mean? All aqueous means is that the water is actually wrapping itself around the ions. This is the ion-dipole interaction.
Now if we wanted to see what it looks like, let’s say we took the sodium ion, now aqueous again means that the water is surrounding it, but which parts of the water are surrounding it? We should realize that oxygen is very electronegative. This compound here is polar if we follow the rules. Because it’s polar, we are going to say that one end is partially positive; the other end is partially negative. Oxygen has a larger electron negative number so this end will be partially negative. The hydrogens are less electronegative, so they are going to be partially positive.
Sodium is positively charged, and remember which side of the water is going to be attracted with it? Opposites attract. So the negative portion of the water will be attracted to it, the partially negative portions. It’s not going to be one molecule surrounding the ion, it’s going to be multiple water molecules surrounding it because we are in solution, it’s in a bucket of water. There’s hundreds and hundreds of water molecules all around, so they all try to surround the ion.
So it’s the interaction between the ion, the positive ion, and the partially negative end of the water molecule. This little dash green line means that it’s not a full bond, it’s just an interaction. They are communicating with each other; they’re partially attracted to each other.
Intermolecular forces are not bonding forces. Remember, we are going to say that intramolecular forces are bonding forces; intermolecular forces are not bonding forces. They are not bonding; they are just attracted to one another. So these little green lines are just an attraction for the positive ion to the partially negative oxygen.
And if we drew chlorine, we’d show that the partially positive ends, the hydrogens, will be attracted to the negative chlorine. That will be our ion-dipole interaction.
So here is an example of ion-dipole and we are going to say basically, fundamentally, we have ion-dipole anytime we have an ionic compound dissolving in a polar liquid, like water. Water is polar based on the rules that we learned.

This intermolecular force deals with the attraction between an ion and a polar compound

Concept #3: The Second Intermolecular Force

Transcript

Now, the next one is easier for us to grasp. This next force is the force that exists anytime H is connected to F, O, N. not fun exactly but F, O, N - fluorine, oxygen, nitrogen. So anytime H is connected to those 3 elements, it’s going to be hydrogen bonding.
So what are some examples of hydrogen bonding? Well, let’s think of some. Water is an example of hydrogen bonding because H is connected directly to oxygen. HF, H is directly connected to fluorine. NH3, H is connected directly to nitrogen. So these three examples would also be hydrogen bonding. And, again, hydrogen bonding is not a real bond; it’s just an interaction.
So a good example is we could have water forming an interaction with another water if we wanted, or even NH3. That dotted red line is not a real bond it’s just an attraction that the molecules have for one another. That would be hydrogen bonding.
Now hydrogen bonding is an extremely important force because water has hydrogen bonding. Water has a very high heat capacity, specific heat capacity. That means that it takes a lot of energy to break water into its molecules. And the reason it takes so much energy to break it up is because water has hydrogen bonding. Hydrogen bonding makes the molecules stronger because all of these attractive forces after first to be broken up before we can start to boil water.
So if you ever wanted why water takes so much time to boil? It’s because of these intermolecular forces. All the water molecules are partially connected to each other, partially attracted to each other. So as a result, it’s going to take a lot of energy to break those partial attractions first before we can begin to vaporize the water.

This intermolecular forces exists anytime hydrogen is directly connected to fluorine, oxygen or nitrogen

Concept #4: The Third Intermolecular Force

Transcript

Now, the force exists when we have two polar covalent compounds attracted to one another. We are going to say here that this is called dipole-dipole. Now, the word dipole means polar, so dipole-dipole means polar-polar. So the name is kind of telling us the reaction. It’s telling us we have a polar A attracted to a polar B. So dipole means polar, so dipole-dipole, again, means polar-polar.
So if we think about it, we can just think of a polar compound, maybe one that we drew earlier. One that we drew earlier would be SiBr4 2-, we know this compound was polar when we drew it. And let say it’s attracted to itself or maybe even attracted to something else that’s polar, PH3. So their attraction to one another, because they are both polar, will be dipole-dipole.

Concept #5: The Fourth Intermolecular Force

Transcript

The fourth intermolecular force exists anytime we have a nonpolar covalent compound having a partial interaction with a polar covalent compound. Now this is called dipole/induced-dipole. Now, we said that the word dipole means polar. Now, the word induced-dipole means nonpolar. So dipole/induced-dipole means polar interacting with non-polar. That’s all that means.
So a good example here, something’s that polar and nonpolar interacting, we could have let’s say, water, which we know is polar, interacting with CCl4. Carbon is in the center there. It’s surrounded by the same chlorines all the way around, so it’s a nonpolar compound. It has no lone pairs, so we are using row 1 to determine if it’s polar or nonpolar. Based on the rules for row 1, this compound will be nonpolar. So this compound is nonpolar; this compound is polar. And the interaction that they have with one another is dipole/induced-dipole. 

This intermolecular force deals with the attraction between a polar and nonpolar covalent compound

Concept #6: The Fifth Intermolecular Force

Transcript

We’re going to need some room to do this last one, so I’m going to remove myself from the image, guys, so we have more room to work with. So actually, I’m coming back. So actually I’m going to stand in the image guys so that we can work on this.
So the last force is the force that exists when two nonpolar covalent compounds are interacting. So we have two non-polars. Now, this last force goes by a ton of different names. One name that we usually give to it is called London-dispersion forces, that’s one name that it can have. Another name for it is van der Waals force. And then a third name that it could have is induced dipole-induced dipole.
So just remember, this last force can be called any one of these three. The main name is London-dispersion but it can also be called one of the other two. We are going to say that this force exists anytime we have nonpolar compounds. So we could have CCl4 interacting with CH4.
And there’s a few things we need to know about his last force. One, that this force is the weakest force. Also, we need to realize that every compound, no matter what it is, has this force. This is a force that’s present in all compounds.
So water, water's main intermolecular force, strong intermolecular force, would be hydrogen bonding but it also has London-dispersion. Because London-dispersion is weaker, when we scan water we will see that the vast majority of its force comes from H-bonding and a very, very small percentage of its force comes from London-dispersion. So again remember, all compounds fundamentally have London-dispersion forces.
And what we should realize here when it comes to London-dispersion forces, we are going to say that compounds with London-dispersion as their only force, we are going to say that the more they weigh, the greater their London-dispersion will be. So these two compounds are both nonpolar, so they both, fundamentally, have London-dispersion as their only force.
CCl4 London-dispersion will be greater than CH4 because CCl4 weighs more. The more you weigh, the greater your London- dispersion. We are going to say the more you weigh, the more polarizable you are.
Because when it comes to London- dispersion, the way it works is, let’s say that this blob here represents a compound and its main force is London-dispersion. Now how can two things have an interaction to each other if they are both nonpolar? The way it works is polarizability.
What’s going to happen is electrons are going to spontaneously align themselves on one end of the compound. So electrons, for a split second, will move to the left side. They just randomly do that. They are all going to move at the left side. So if all the electrons move to the left side, this side is going to become negative, partially negative. If all the electrons are leaving the right side, this side going to become partially positive.
Then what happens here is polarizability. So the compound that’s nonpolar, usually, for a split second, can become polar. It then comes near a compound that’s strictly nonpolar. So CCl4 comes near CH4. Because this guy here becomes polar for an instant. It’s going to make this compound become polar for an instant as well. This partially positive end here is going to attract electrons. So it’s going to cause the electrons to shift in compound B to this side so they’re close to the partially positive charge. Then moving to the left will cause this side over here to become partially positive.
Now this happens for only an instant. And then the molecule returns back to being nonpolar. But that instant that this happens, that’s when we get this interaction between nonpolar compounds. It happens for just a moment, but in that moment, that’s where we have the London-dispersion happening. And remember, all compounds have London-dispersion. Compounds that are nonpolar have it as their main and only force.
So remember these are your major types of intermolecular forces that your professor will expect you to know, and a majority of them comes from fundamentally knowing how to draw.
Ion-dipole, you don’t really need to know how to draw because ion-dipole exists anytime we have an ionic compound. So if we have an ionic compound and its dissolving in a polar solvent, like water, it’s going to be ion-dipole. H-bonding, we kind of don’t need to really know how to draw either because if H is connected to F, O or N, it’s automatically H-bonding.
It’s when we get to dipole-dipole and London-dispersion where it’s important we know how to draw because you have to learn how to draw this compounds to be able to determine, is it a polar covalent compound or is it a nonpolar covalent. That is where it becomes essential to know what kind of structure we have and go over the rules for polarity. 

This intermolecular force is found in all compounds, but it's the main intermolecular force of nonpolar covalent compounds

Example #1: Based on the given compounds, answer each of the following questions:

CH3CH3,       KBr,        C6H5OH,           CaS,             Ne

a. Which compound will have the lowest boiling point?

 

b. Which compound will have the highest surface tension.

 

c. Which compound will have the highest vapor pressure. 

Practice: The predominant intermolecular force in C6H5NH2 is:

Practice: The predominant intermolecular force in HBr is:

Practice: The predominant intermolecular force in ZnBr2 with H2O is:

Practice: The predominant intermolecular force in Ne with H2O is:

Solubility & Intermolecular Forces

Solubility deals with the dissolving of a solute in a solvent in order to create a solution

Concept #7: Understanding the Theory of "Likes" dissolve "Likes"

Transcript

Why was it so important that we identify a compound as polar or nonpolar? Because we're going to say that compounds with the same intermolecular force, or polarity, will dissolve into each other to form a solution. Now we're going to say that if you have a polar and a polar, they're going to mix together well. If you have a non-polar and a polar, their polarities are different, so they won't be able to dissolve into each other to form a solution.
We're going to say according to the theory of likes dissolve likes, basically, the two compounds have to have the same intermolecular force. If they have the same intermolecular force, they have the same polarity. But they could also have different intermolecular forces.
Let's say one compound had hydrogen bonding and the other one had dipole-dipole, that's okay because hydrogen bonding and dipole-dipole are both polar forces. Because they're both still polar, they'll be able to dissolve with one another. But let's say one had dipole-dipole and the other one had London-dispersion. Dipole-dipole is polar. London-dispersion is non-polar. Because of their differences in polarity, they will not mix.
Also, we're going to say that there's a difference between a mixture and a solution. We're going to say mixtures, we've talked about this so many weeks ago, mixtures come in two types. We have homogeneous or heterogeneous. We're going to say homogeneous mixtures mix together. They dissolve into each other. We're going to say that heterogeneous mixtures do not mix.
Oil and water is a good example that we've talked about. They won't mix because why? Oils are non-polar solvents. They're non-polar. Water, on the other hand, is polar. As a result, polar and non-polar do not mix. That's why oil and water don't mix together at all. Mixtures come in these two types.
A solution, all solutions, are just homogeneous mixtures. Remember the difference. Mixtures come in two types. They can either be homogeneous, where they mix together, or heterogeneous, where they don't. All solutions are just homogeneous mixtures. In a solution, we can dissolve both things into each other, so they do mix.

In order for a solvent to dissolve a solute both components have similar polarities. 

Example #2: Identify the intermolecular forces present in both the solute and the solvent, and predict whether a solution will form between the two. 

CCl4 and P4

Example #3: Identify the intermolecular forces present in both the solute and the solvent, and predict whether a solution will form between the two. 

CH3OH and C6H6

Example #4: Identify the intermolecular forces present in both the solute and the solvent, and predict whether a solution will form between the two. 

C6H5CH2NH2 and HF

Example #5: Identify the intermolecular forces present in both the solute and the solvent, and predict whether a solution will form between the two. 

IF4­ -   and NH3

Practice: Which of the following statements is/are true?

a) Methane will dissolve completely in acetone, CH3COCH3.

b) Hydrofluoric acid (HF) will form a heterogeneous mixture with tetrachloride, CCl4.

c) Pentane will form a homogeneous mixture with CBr4.

d) Methanethiol (CH3SH) is miscible in fluoromethane (CH3F).

At room temperature, nitrogen (N 2) and oxygen (O2) are both gases, but both will condense if the temperature is lowered enough. N2 condenses at 77K, and O2 condenses at 90K. Which of these molecules experiences weaker intermolecular forces? ___________
Determine the strongest intermolecular force present in each element of compound.  a. HCl b. Br2 c. PH3 d. NH3 
What is the strongest evidence for hydrogen bonding? 1. The boiling points of NH3, H2O, and HF are abnormally high compared with the rest of the hydrides in their respective periods. 2. Hydrogen is able to accept or donate electrons, so it is the most versatile atom in the periodic chart. 3. Hydrogen has an extremely low electronegativity. 4. Hydrogen can be considered either a metal or nonmetal.
The dominant forces between molecules (intermolecular forces) are ____ in origin. 1. electrostatic 2. electrodynamic 3. electromagnetic 4. gravitational 5. magnetic
True or false: Xe is more polarizable than Ne. _________
Which of the following characteristics indicates the presence of  weak  intermolecular forces in a liquid? a) a high critical temperature  b) a low heat of vaporization c) a high boiling point d) a low vapor pressure e) None of the above
Dispersion (London) forces result from 1. distortion of the electron cloud of an atom or molecule by the presence of nearby atoms or molecules. 2. the formation of a loose covalent linkage between a hydrogen atom connected to a very electronegative atom in one molecule and another very electronegative atom in a neighboring molecule. 3. the balance of attractive and repulsive forces between two polar molecules. 4. attraction between molecules in a liquid and molecules or atoms in a solid surface with which the liquid is in contact. 5. attractive forces between a molecule at the surface of a liquid and those beneath it which are not balanced by corresponding forces from above.
In which of these compounds would you find ONLY dispersion forces existing between the molecules? I. CCl4; II. NH3; III. CO2; IV. HBr. 1. II and III only 2. I and III only  3. III and IV only 4. I and IV only 5. II only 6. III only 7. IV only 8. I and II only 9. II and IV only 10. I only
Soap has an ionic and a polar end. It works well to remove oil by A) surrounding the oil with the nonpolar end, and the water interacts with the polar end. B) surrounding the oil with the polar end, and the water interacts with the nonpolar end. C) surrounding the oil and water with the nonpolar end. D) surrounding the oil and water with the polar end.
Which one of the following substances will have both dispersion forces and dipole-dipole forces?             A)  Br2    B)  BCl3    C)  HCl    D)  H 2    E)  CO2
Which one of the following substances should exhibit hydrogen bonding in the liquid state?             A)  PH3    B)  He    C)  H2S    D)  CH4    E)  CH3OH
Which figure best describes the hydrogen bonding between two water molecules?
Identify the dominant intermolecular force in the following species, respectively: RbCl, C6H6 (benzene), HI, Fe2O3, CH2NH. a) ionic forces b) hydrogen bonding c) dipole-dipole d) instantaneous dipoles A. c, b, d, c, c B. a, c, c, d, c C. a, b, c, b, a D. a, d, c, a, b E. a, b, d, a, c F. b, d, c, d, d G. c, d, a, a, b
Acetic acid (CH3COOH) forms a molecular solid. What type of forces hold it in a solid configuration? I) London forces II) dipole-dipole III) hydrogen bonding A. II only B. I, II, and III C. II and III only D. I only E. I and II only F. II only
Which type of solid is held together only by hydrogen bonds? A. molecular crystal B. ionic crystal C. network crystal D. metallic crystal E. several of the above
"Sparkling water" is made by dissolving large amounts of carbon dioxide gas in ordinary water. What are the strongest types of intermolecular bonds between the carbon dioxide molecules and the water molecules in this mixture? a) London forces b) dipole-dipole forces c) ion-dipole forces d) dipole-induced dipole forces e) ion-ion forces
Which intermolecular force predominates in the condensation of water? a. H-bonding  b. Van der Waals c. London d. Ion-Ion e. Dipole-ion
What are the major attractive forces in an aliquot of pure carbon tetrachloride CCl 4? a) dipole-induced dipole b) dispersion c) ion-ion d) ion-dipole e) dipole-dipole
What are the major attractive forces between molecules in the “solution” in an average soda can which contains primarily water and dissolved carbon dioxide? a) dipole-induced dipole b) dispersion c) ion-ion d) ion-dipole e) dipole-dipole
The major forces holding water molecules together in the liquid state are referred to as hydrogen bonds. These are really what kind of attractive forces? a) dipole-induced dipole b) dispersion c) ion-ion d) ion-dipole e) dipole-dipole
A solution of hydrochloric acid in water is often used to clean dirty toilets. What are the strongest intermolecular forces in this solution? a) ion-ion b) induced dipole-induced dipole c) dipole-induced dipole d) dipole-dipole e ion-dipole
Water and ethyl alcohol (CH3CH2OH, the kind people drink) mix completely with one another. What are the strongest intermolecular forces that are responsible for attracting these molecules to each other in this solution? a) ion-ion b) induced dipole-induced dipole c) dipole-induced dipole d)  dipole-dipole e) ion-dipole
London forces would be the strongest type of interaction between which of the following molecules in the gas phase? a) NaCl b) H2O c) CaCl2 d) O2 e) HCl
In which of the following compounds will the molecules not form hydrogen bonds with each other?  
INTERMOLECULAR FORCES Intermolecular forces (nonbonding forces) exist between molecules and influence the physical properties of the substance. The 5 most common intermolecular forces are: 1)  Ion-Dipole is the intermolecular force that exists between an ion and a polar compound. (Strongest) Ex:   NaCl dissolved in H2O   2)  Hydrogen Bonding is the intermolecular force that exists when hydrogen is directly connected F, O, N. (2nd Strongest) Ex:   NH3                                  H2O                  HF   3)  Dipole-Dipole is the intermolecular force that exists with polar covalent compounds. (3rd Strongest) Ex: CHCl3               HCl                   HBr                  HI   4) Dipole/Induced-Dipole is the intermolecular force that exists when a nonpolar covalent compound interacts with a polar covalent compound. (4th Strongest) Ex:       S8 (nonpolar solute) in  H2O (polar solvent)     5)  London Dispersion or Van der Waals Forces is the intermolecular force that exists with nonpolar covalent compounds. (Weakest)    
Which of the following has the strongest intermolecular forces? 1. F2 2. Ne 3. BrF 4. CO2
The strongest intermolecular forces between hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) molecules arise from  1. dipole-dipole forces 2. dispersion forces 3. hydrogen bonding 4. ion-dipole interactions 5. disulfide linkages
The strongest intermolecular forces between LiF particles are 1. dipole-dipole forces 2. dispersion forces 3. hydrogen bonding  4. ion-dipole interactions
Which of the following exhibits hydrogen bonding? 1. H3COCH3 2. CH3NH2 3. CH3SH 4. CH3Cl 5. HCl  
Which of the following compounds could not participate in hydrogen-bonding? a) H2O b) CH3NH2 c) CH3OH d) CH3Cl e) NH3
Which of the following can form intermolecular hydrogen bonds in the pure liquid? A. 1 only B. 2 only C. 3 only D. 2 and 3 only E. 1 and 2 only
Place the following compounds in order of  increasing strength of intermolecular forces. CO2      F2      NH 2CH3   A) F2  < NH 2CH 3 <  CO2 B) NH 2CH3  <  F2 <  CO2 C) CO2  < NH2CH3 <  F2 D) F2  <  CO2 <  NH2CH3 E) NH2CH3  <  CO2 <  F2
Give the major intermolecular force in seawater. A) dipole-dipole B) dispersion (London dispersion) C) hydrogen bonding D) ion-ion E) ion-dipole
Choose the molecule or compound that exhibits dispersion forces as its strongest intermolecular force.  A) CO B) Cl2 C) HF D) NaCl E) All of these have intermolecular forces stronger than dispersion. 
Identify the principal intermolecular forces that exist between molecules in each of the following species: a. C6H6   b. CH3Cl   d. CS2   e. CH3OH   f.  PF3    
 Define hydrogen bonding and indicate the hydrogen bonding interactions in water. 
List the following compounds in order of increasing strength of intermolecular forces. Cl2         F 2          NH2CH2CH3 A. NH2CH2CH3 < Cl2 < F2 B. F2 < NH2CH2CH3 < Cl2 C. NH2CH2CH3 < F2 < Cl2 D. F2 < Cl2 < NH2CH2CH3 E. Cl2 < F2 < NH2CH2CH3
What are the major attractive forces in an aliquot of pure carbon tetrachloride CCl 4? a) dipole-induced dipole b) dispersion c) ion-ion d) ion-dipole e) dipole-dipole
Which one of the following substances will have hydrogen bonding as one of its intermolecular forces?
What types of intermolecular forces exist between HI and H 2S? A) dispersion forces and dipole-dipole B) dipole-dipole and ion-dipole  C) dispersion forces, dipole-dipole, and ion-dipole  D) dispersion forces, hydrogen bonding, dipole-dipole, and ion-dipole  E) dispersion forces, dipole-dipole, and ion-dipole
Which is expected to have the largest dispersion forces?  A) C3H8 B) C12H26 C) F2 D) BeCl2
Methane (CH4) forms a molecular solid. What type of forces hold it in a solid configuration? I) London forces II) dipole-dipole forces III) hydrogen bonding 1. I only 2. II only 3. I, II, and III 4. I and II only 5. II and III only 6. III only
In general, intramolecular forces determine the __________ properties of a substance and intermolecular forces determine its __________ properties. A. chemical, physical       B. physical, chemical       C. solution, intrinsic     D. pressure, viscosity
What types of intermolecular forces exist between PH 3 and CO? A. hydrogen bonding       B. dispersion forces and hydrogen bonding       C. dispersion forces D. dipole-dipole and hydrogen bonding        E. dispersion forces and dipole-dipole
Liquid hydrogen is used as one part of the booster fuel in the space shuttle. What type of forces exist between hydrogen molecules in liquid hydrogen? 1. a mixture of all these forces 2. dispersion forces 3. hydrogen bonding 4. dipole forces
The DOMINANT intermolecular force that causes gaseous HCl molecules to attract one another is 1. dipole-dipole 2. covalent 3. None of these is dominant. 4. Ionic 5. van der Waals
Which of the following can be expected to exhibit the strongest hydrogen bonding in the liquid state? 1. CH4 2. CH3COCH3 3. CH3OCH3 4. CH3OH 5. CH3CH3
What types of intermolecular interactions does ammonia (NH 3) exhibit? I) dispersion forces II) dipole-dipole interaction III) hydrogen bonding IV) covalent bonding 1. I and II only 2. I, II, and III only 3. II and III only 4. II and IV only 5. I only 6. II only
Which option contains substances that can exhibit only London dispersion forces, and no other intermolecular forces? A) SF6        CH 4         Ne B) H2O       CH 4         Ne C) SF6        CH 4         NaCl D) NaCl       H2O        CH 4 E) BaSO4    Ne          CH 4
Consider water and glycerol , CH2( OH)CH(OH)CH2OH.List the intermolecular attractions that occur between a water molecule and a glycerol molecule.
Which type of intermolecular attractive force operates between all molecules?
What is the dispersion force? What does the magnitude of the dispersion force depend on? How can you predict the magnitude of the dispersion force for closely related elements or compounds?
The following data present the temperatures at which certain vapor pressures are achieved for dichloromethane (CH2 Cl2 ) and methyl iodide (CH3 I): Vapor Pressure (torr): 10.0 40.0 100.0 400.0 T for CH2 Cl2 (oC): -43.3 -22.3 -6.3 24.1 T for CH3 I(oC): -45.8 -24.2 -7.0 25.3 Which is expected to have the greater London dispersion forces?
The table below shows the normal boiling points of benzene and benzene derivatives. Which of these compounds exhibit hydrogen bonding?
Which type of intermolecular attractive force operates only between the hydrogen atom of a polar bond and a nearby small electronegative atom?
Hydrogen bonding. Hydrogen bonding can occur when an H atom is bonded to an N, O, or F atom.To form a hydrogen bond, what must the non-hydrogen atom (N, O, or F) involved in the bond possess?
What is hydrogen bonding? How can you predict the presence of hydrogen bonding in a compound?
What kind of intermolecular attractive force is shown in each of the following cases? Picture (a)
What kind of intermolecular attractive force is shown in each of the following cases? Predict which of the four interactions is the weakest
What kind of intermolecular attractive force is shown in each of the following cases? Picture (b)
What kind of intermolecular attractive force is shown in each of the following cases? Picture (d)
Look up and compare the normal boiling points and normal melting points of H2O and H2S.What kinds of intermolecular forces exist for H2O?
Look up and compare the normal boiling points and normal melting points of H2O and H2S.What kind of intermolecular forces exist for H2S?
From what kinds of interactions do intermolecular forces originate?
Acetone, (CH3 )2 CO, is widely used as an industrial solvent.What kinds of intermolecular attractive forces exist between acetone molecules?
How does the average kinetic energy of molecules compare with the average energy of attraction between molecules in liquids?
Determine the kinds of intermolecular forces that are present in each of the following elements or compounds.HCl
What is the ion-dipole force? Why is it important?
Which type of intermolecular attractive force operates only between polar molecules?
What is the dipole-dipole force? How can you predict the presence of dipole-dipole forces in a compound?
Two isomers of the planar compound 1,2-dichloroethylene are shown here, along with their melting and boiling points. Which of the two isomers will have the stronger dipole-dipole forces?
Which of the following intermolecular forces of attraction is the strongest? a. hydrogen bonding b. dipole-dipole forces c. dispersion forces d. London forces e. dipole-induced dipole forces
Draw out the Lewis Structure and answer the following questions. SiBr42– Number of Valence Electrons:Molecular Geometry:Electronic Geometry: Hybridization:Unhybridized Orbitals:Polarity:Bonding orbitals (Si – Br):Intermolecular Force:
List all the intermolecular forces present in pure acetone.
Draw out the Lewis Structure and answer the following questions. SF6                              Number of Valence Electrons:Molecular Geometry:Electronic Geometry:Hybridization:Unhybridized Orbitals:Polarity:Bonding orbitals (S – F):Intermolecular Force:
Why is I2 a solid while Cl2 is a gas even though they are both halogens?1. I2 is more polarizable than Cl2.2. I2 has a smaller dipole than Cl2.3. I2 is less polarizable than Cl2.4. I2 has a larger dipole than Cl2.5. I2 has H-bonding and Cl2 does not.
Identify the predominant type of intermolecular force in each of the following compounds. Drag each item to the appropriate bin.
A substance has a melting point of 1200 K, and it conducts electricity in the melted state (liquid) but not in the solid state. What is the name of the major attractive force that holds this substance together?1. hydrogen bonds2. metallic bonds3. dispersion forces4. dipole-dipole attractions5. ionic bonds
What are all of the intermolecular forces that are responsible for the existence of dry ice (solid CO2)?1. hydrogen bonding and dipole-dipole2. London forces 3. dipole-dipole, London forces, and hydrogen bonding4. dipole-dipole and ion-ion5. dipole-dipole and London forces
Which of the following molecules can form hydrogen bonds? Select one.a. NH3b. CH4c. NaHd. BH3e. HI
State the kind of intermolecular forces that would occur between the solute and solvent in barium nitrate (ionic) solution. Check all that apply.a. dispersionb. hydrogen bondingc. ion-dipoled. dipole-dipole
Select the major force between the molecules in pure, liquid acetone.A. ion-ionB. ion-dipoleC. hydrogen bondingD. dipole-dipoleE. dispersion 
Choose the molecule that exhibits London (dispersion) forces as its strongest intermolecular force.a. Cl2b. COc. HFd. NaCle. All of these have intermolecular forces stronger than dispersion
What is the strongest type of intermolecular force present in NH 2CH3?a. dispersionb. dipole-dipolec. hydrogen bondingd. ion-dipolee. none of the above
Identify the kinds of intermolecular forces that might arise between molecules of CH3OH. 1. None of these 2. dispersion forces, dipole-dipole 3. dipole-dipole 4. dispersion forces 5. hydrogen bonding 6. dispersion forces, dipole-dipole, hydrogen bonding
Determine the kinds of intermolecular forces (from below) that are present in the compound H2S. a) dispersion forces b) dipole–dipole forces c) dispersion forces and dipole–dipole forces d) hydrogen bonding
Give the major force between ethanol and waterA. dipole–dipoleB. dispersionC. hydrogen–bondingD. ion–dipoleE. ion–ion
Which of the following compounds exhibits hydrogen bonding? A) CH3CH2NH2 B) C6H5OC6H5 C) CH3I D) H2S
Which intermolecular forces contribute to the dissolution of NaCl in water? Select all that apply.a. ion-dipole forcesb. ion-ion forcesc. dipole-dipole forcesd. hydrogen bonding
Which of the following statements describe hydrogen bonding between water molecules or describe properties of water that lead to hydrogen bonding between water molecules?a. The slightly negative oxygen atom of one water molecule is attracted to the slightly positive hydrogen atom of another water molecule.b. The slightly positive hydrogen atom is attracted to the slightly negative oxygen atom within a single water molecule.c. Water is polar due to its bent structure and an unequal sharing of electrons.d. Water is nonpolar due to its linear structure and unequal sharing of electrons.
Suppose that NaCl is added to hexane instead of water. Which of the following intermolecular forces will exist in the system? Select all that apply.a. Hydrogen bonding between Na+ ions and a hexane moleculeb. London dispersion force between two hexane moleculesc. Ion-dipole force between Na+ ions and a hexane moleculed. Ion-ion force between Na+ and Cl- ionse. Dipole-dipole force between two hexane molecules
What intermolecular attractive force is primarily responsible for the solubility of chlorine, Cl2, in water?a. dipole - dipoleb. hydrogen bondingc. dipole-induced dipoled. ion-dipolee. ion-induced dipole
If a solid line represents a covalent bond and a dotted line represents intermolecular attraction, which of these choices shows a hydrogen bond? Check all that apply
Consider four moleculesI) CHCl3II) CH4III) CH3ClIV) CCl4Which of these exhibit permanent dipole-dipole interactions?1. I only2. III only3. I and III only4. None of these5. I, III, and IV only
It is common to add Epson salts to bath water when one has been over exercising and has sore muscles. What is the primary intermolecular force that exists between magnesium sulfate, the primary in Epson salts, and the water in the bathtub?a) dipole-dipole forcesb) ion-dipole forcesc) London forcesd) ion-ion forcese) dipole-induced dipole forces
What is the strongest intermolecular force present in SO2 ? (EN Values: S = 2.5; O = 3.5)A) Dispersion forces (London dispersion)B) Dipole-Dipole forceC) Hydrogen-BondD) Ion-Dipole forceE) Covalent Bond
Identify which of the following are correct conditions for forming a hydrogen bond: a) A hydrogen bond is equivalent to a covalent bond. b) The CH4 molecule exhibits hydrogen bonding. c) A hydrogen bond is possible with only certain hydrogen-containing compounds. d) Hydrogen bonding occurs when a hydrogen atom is covalently bonded to an N, O or F atom. e) A hydrogen atom acquires a partial positive charge when it is covalently bonded to an F atom.
Intermolecular forces are:             A.  between molecules and weaker than a chemical bond.             B.  between two atoms within a molecule and weaker than a chemical bond.             C.  between molecules and stronger than a chemical bond.             D. between two atoms within a molecule and stronger than a chemical bond.             E. between electrons within an atom and stronger than a chemical bond.
What is the intermolecular force that exists between a calcium ion and water? a. ion-dipole b. Covalent bonding c. London dispersion forces d. ion-ion e. dipole-dipole forces
Which of the following molecules will show only intermolecular dispersion force?
Determine the kinds of intermolecular forces that is/are present in the following compound. CH3OHa) dispersion forcesb) dipole-dipole forcesc) hydrogen bondingd) dispersion forces, dipole-dipole forces, and hydrogen bonding
Sort the following events by the dominant type of force overcome or formed:
Which of the following is correct?a) The energy of dipole-dipole interactions is about 2 kJ • mol -1.b) The energy of ion-dipole interactions is about 2 kJ • mol -1.c) The energy of London forces is about 2 kJ • mol -1.d) The energy of a hydrogen bond is about 2 kJ • mol -1.e) The energy of ion-ion interactions is about 2 kJ • mol -1.
Choose the molecule or compound that exhibits dispersion forces as its strongest intermolecular force.A) O2B) COC) HFD) NaClE) All of these have intermolecular forces stronger than dispersion.
Determine the kinds of intermolecular forces present in each element or compound:N2, NH3, CO, CCl4, HCl, H2O
The predominant intermolecular force in BF3 is:  London Dispersion Hydrogen Bonding Ion-Dipole Dipole-Dipole Dipole-induced Dipole
Which of the following substances have polar interactions (dipole-dipole forces) between molecules?a) F2b) Cl2c) ClFd) NF3
What is/are the strongest intermolecular force(s) in acetone?a. H-bondingb. dipole-dipolec. dispersion
Below are various rankings of intermolecular forces, which option correctly ranks the given forces from weakest to strongest? a) dipole-dipole < ion-dipole < ion-induced dipole b) dispersion < ion-induced dipole < dipole-induced dipole c) dipole-dipole < hydrogen bonding < dipole-induced dipole d) ion-induced dipole < dipole-dipole < hydrogen bonding e) dipole-induced dipole < hydrogen bonding < ion-induced dipole
Which of the responses includes all of the following that can form hydrogen bonds with water molecules?(A) Na+      (B) CH 3COOH     (C) C2H6     (D) CH 3NH21) (A) and (B)2) (A) and (C)3) (B) and (C)4) (B) and (D)5) (C) and (D)
Draw out the Lewis Structure and answer the following questions. IF2– Number of Valence Electrons:Molecular Geometry:Electronic Geometry:Hybridization:Unhybridized Orbitals:Polarity:Bonding Orbitals (I – F):Intermolecular Force:
Why is water an extraordinary substance?A) Water has a low molar mass, yet it is a liquid at room temperature.B) Water is the main solvent within living organisms.C) Water has an exceptionally high specific heat capacity.D) Water has strong hydrogen bonding.E) All of the above.
Which has the smallest dipole-dipole forces?A) CH3ClB) HBrC) O2D) NO
Determine the kinds of intermolecular forces that are present in the following element or compound: SiH4a) Dispersion forcesb) Dipole-dipole forcesc) Hydrogen bonding
What intermolecular forces are present in each of the substances?a. CH4b. C3H8c. CH3Fd. HFe. C6H5OH 
Draw out the Lewis Structure and answer the following questions. COCl2Number of Valence Electrons:Molecular Geometry:Electronic Geometry:Hybridization:Unhybridized Orbitals:Polarity:Bonding Orbitals (C – O):Intermolecular Force:
Place the following compounds in order of decreasing strength of intermolecular forces.HF        H2       CO 2A) HF > CO2 > H2B) HF > H2 > CO2C) H2 > CO2 > HD) CO2 > HF > H 2E) CO2 > H2 > HF
Draw out the Lewis Structure and answer the following questions. C2H4Number of Valence Electrons:Molecular Geometry:Electronic Geometry:Hybridization:Unhybridized Orbitals:Polarity:Bonding Orbitals (C – H):Intermolecular Force:
Identify the intermolecular forces present in each of these substances:HCl, He, CO, HFMatch these to the correct groups below.1. Hydrogen bonding, dipole-dipole and dispersion2. Dipole-dipole and dispersion only3. Dispersion only
Which of the following exhibit only london (dispersion) forces?He, HCl, H2O, Cl2
Identify the intermolecular forces present in each of these substances.NH3, CO, CO2, CH3Cl
Which interactions and processes contribute to the dissolution of ionic compounds in water? Check all that apply. A) Hydration B) Affinity of oxygen towards cations C) Ion–dipole interactions D) Hydrogen bonding E) Affinity of hydrogen towards anions F) Dipole–dipole interactions
What is the strongest intermolecular force in SO 2? a) dipole-dipole b) london dispersion c) ionic d) hydrogen bonding
Identify the intermolecular forces present in each of these substances.HF, CO, H2, and HCl.
Arrange the non-covalent interactions in order of strength.ion-ion interactionsdipole-dipole interactionsdispersion forceshydrogen bonding
Choose the molecule or compound that exhibits dipole-dipole forces as its strongest intermolecular force.a. NH3b. CF4c. SO2d. BCl3e. H2
Which of the following molecules can form intermolecular hydrogen bonds as a pure liquid? a. I, II, and III b. II and IV c. I and III d. All molecules form hydrogen bond interactions e. None of the molecules form hydrogen bond interactions
For each of the following molecules, would you expect greater solubility in water or in hexane?For each case, indicate the kinds of intermolecular forces that occur between the solute and the solvent in which the molecule is most soluble.
You may want to reference (Pages 122 - 125) Section 4.1 while completing this problem.Would you expect that an anion would be physically closer to the oxygen or to the hydrogens of water molecules that surround it in solution?
In which mixture do you expect to find ion–dipole forces between solute and solvent to exist: CH3OH in water or Ca(NO3)2 in water?
For the homogeneous solution, consisting of CH3CH2OH and H2O, indicate the type of forces that are involved.
Pick an appropriate solvent from the table below to dissolve each of the following.Common Laboratory SolventsCommon Polar SolventsCommon Nonpolar SolventsWater (H2O)Hexane (C6H14)Acetone (CH3COCH3)Diethyl ether(CH3CH2OCH2CH3 )Methanol (CH3OH)Toluene (C7H8)Ethanol (CH3CH2OH)Carbon tetrachloride(CCl4)* Diethyl ether has a small dipole moment and can be considered intermediate between polar and nonpolar.State the kind of intermolecular forces that would occur between the solute and solvent.a. motor oil (nonpolar)b. ethanol (polar, contains an OH group)c. lard (nonpolar)d. potassium chloride (ionic)
Pick an appropriate solvent from the table below to dissolve each substance. State the kind of intermolecular forces that would occur between the solute and solvent in isopropyl alcohol (polar, contains an OH group).Common polar solventsCommon nonpolar solventsWater (H2O)Hexane (C6H14)Acetone (CH3COCH3)Diethyl ether (CH3CH2OCH2CH3)Methanol (CH3OH)Toluene (C7H8)Ethanol (CH3CH2OH)Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)
Pick an appropriate solvent from the table below to dissolve each substance.  State the kind of intermolecular forces that would occur between the solute and solvent in sodium chloride (ionic).Common polar solventsCommon nonpolar solventsWater (H2O)Hexane (C6H14)Acetone (CH3COCH3)Diethyl ether (CH3CH2OCH2CH3)Methanol (CH3OH)Toluene (C7H8)Ethanol (CH3CH2OH)Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)
What is the strongest type of intermolecular force between solute and solvent in each solution?(b) Ne(g) in H2O(l)
Pick an appropriate solvent from the table below to dissolve each substance. State the kind of intermolecular forces that would occur between the solute and solvent in paraffine oil (nonpolar).Common polar solventsCommon nonpolar solventsWater (H2O)Hexane (C6H14)Acetone (CH3COCH3)Diethyl ether (CH3CH2OCH2CH3)Methanol (CH3OH)Toluene (C7H8)Ethanol (CH3CH2OH)Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)
Pick an appropriate solvent from the table below to dissolve each substance. State the kind of intermolecular forces that would occur between the solute and solvent in sodium nitrate (ionic).Common polar solventsCommon nonpolar solventsWater (H2O)Hexane (C6H14)Acetone (CH3COCH3)Diethyl ether (CH3CH2OCH2CH3)Methanol (CH3OH)Toluene (C7H8)Ethanol (CH3CH2OH)Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)
Which of the following pairs of compounds would you expect to form homogeneous solutions when combined?a. CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3 and CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3b. CBr4 and H2Oc. LiNO3 and H2Od. CH3OH and CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3
Indicate the types of forces that are involved when forming a homogeneous solution between CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3 and CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3.
Indicate the types of forces that are involved when forming a homogeneous solution between LiNO3 and H2O.
Explain the cleansing action of soap.
Indicate the kinds of intermolecular forces that would occur between the toluene and hexane:
Indicate the kinds of intermolecular forces that would occur between the sucrose and water:
Indicate the kinds of intermolecular forces that would occur between the isobutene and hexane:
Indicate the kinds of intermolecular forces that would occur between the ethylene glycol and water:
Which species in each pair has the greater polarizability? Explain.(a) Br− or I−
Which species in each pair has the greater polarizability? Explain.(b) CH2=CH2 or CH3—CH3
Which species in each pair has the greater polarizability? Explain.(c) H2O or H2Se
Which species in each pair has the greater polarizability? Explain.(a) Ca2+ or Ca
Which species in each pair has the greater polarizability? Explain.(b) CH3CH3 or CH3CH2CH3
Which species in each pair has the greater polarizability? Explain.(c) CCl4 or CF4
Define the following and give an example of each:(a) dispersion force
Put the following molecules in order of increasing polarizability: GeCl4, CH4, SiCl4, SiH4, and GeBr4.
Which member of the following pairs has the larger London dispersion forces?H2O or H2S?
Which member of the following pairs has the larger London dispersion forces?CO2 or CO?
Given each pair, complete the sentences to determine which member of each has the stronger intermolecular dispersion forces.
Which type(s) of bonding is (are) found within hydrocarbon molecules? a. Hydrogen Bonding b. Covalent Bonding c. Van der Waals d. Metallic e. Ionic
Consider the following enthalpy changes:F2 + HF → FHF -                                              ΔH = -155 kJ/mol(CH3)2C=O + HF → (CH 3)2C=O---HF             ΔH = -46 kJ/molH2O (g) +  HOH (g) → H2O---HOH (in ice)       ΔH = -21 kJ/molHow do the strengths of hydrogen bonds vary with the electronegativity of the element to which hydrogen is bonded? Where in the preceding series would you expect hydrogen bonds of the following type to fall?
Which member of each pair of compounds forms intermolecular H bonds? Draw the H-bonded structures in each case:a.  or CH3SCH3