Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond TheoryWorksheetSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds

How would an s orbital combine with a p orbital to form a covalent bond? The answer is through hybridization where a hybrid oribital is formed. 

Atomic Orbitals vs. Hybrid Orbitals

Concept #1: Understanding Overlapping Atomic Orbitals 

A sigma bond is formed by the direct end to end overlapping of atomic orbitals. 

Concept #2: Understanding Hybrid Orbitals 

For an s orbital to bond with a p orbital the central element must first undergo hybridization. 

Determining Hybridization

Concept #3: Simplifying Hybridization 

To determine the hybridization of a central element we look at the number of groups around it. 

Example #1: For each of the given covalent compounds draw out the Lewis Structure and answer the questions.  

CH2Cl2                   Hybridization,                                                          

                               Unhybridized Orbitals,                                             

                               Bonding orbitals (C – H).


XeCl5+                   Hybridization,                                                          

                               Unhybridized Orbitals,                                             

                               Bonding orbitals (Xe – Cl).

Practice: For the given covalent compound draw out the Lewis Structure and answer the questions. 

IF2:  Hybridization,

       Unhybridized Orbitals, 

       Bonding orbitals (I-F).

Practice: For the given covalent compound draw out the Lewis Structure and answer the questions. 

CH3+:  Hybridization: 

         Unhybridized Orbitals:

         Bonding orbitals (C - H):

Additional Problems
N,N-diethyl-m-tolumide (DEET) is the active ingredient in many mosquito repellents. What is the hybridization state of the atoms indicated by the arrows in the structure of DEET shown below.
Consider the line formula for the migraine medication, Imitrex. What is the correct empirical formula for this compound? 1. C14H21N3O2S 2. C14H19N3O2S 3. C13H20N3O2S 4. C12H20N3O2S 5. C12H21N3O2S 6. C13H19N3O2S Which of the following best represents the bond angle labeled a? 1. 90° 2. 118° 3. 178° 4. 120° 5. 107° 6. 109.5° 7. 180° What is the hybridization of the atom that is labeled b? 1. sp2 2. sp3 3. sp3d2 4. sp3d 5. sp
What is the hybridization of carbon in CH 2O? C is the central atom. 1. sp3d 2. sp3 3. sp 4. sp2 5. sp3d2
ICl3 is sp3 d hybridized. What is the electronic and molecular geometry? 1. tetrahedral; pyramidal 2. trigonal bipyramidal; T-shaped 3. trigonal planar; trigonal planar 4. octahedral; T-shaped 5. trigonal bipyramidal, seesaw
In which one of the following molecules is the central atom sp 2 hybridized?             A)  SO2    B)  N2O    C)  BeCl2    D)  NF3    E)  PF5
Determine the hybridization for the central element of each compound given below. (a) SO42− (b) CH4 (c) SF6 (d) PCl5 (e) H2O
What hybrid orbitals are used for bonding by the central atom N in NOF3? (N is the central atom) 1. sp 2. sp2 3. sp3 4. sp3d 5. sp3d2
The orbital or orbitals shown below is or are most correctly described by which of the following answers?
A central atom in a species with a square planar molecular geometry use this typical hybrid orbital. 1. sp         2. sp 2         3. sp 3         4. sp 3d         5. sp 3d2
The central atom in ICl2 – uses which kind of hybrid orbitals? 1. sp         2. sp 2          3. sp 3          4. sp 3d          5. sp 3d 2
How many nitrogens are sp3 hybridized? 5 3 2 1 0
What is the hybridization of the oxygen atom labeled x in the structure below? a. sp b. sp2 c. sp3 d. sp3d e. sp3d2
What type of hybridization is exhibited by the central atom in CH 2O? a. sp2 b. sp c. sp3 d. sp3d e. sp3d2
What hybridization would you expect for the carbon atoms in the cyclic compound benzene (C6H6)? 1. sp3d 2. sp3d2 3. sp3 4. sp2 5. sp
A molecule has one lone pair of electrons on the central atom and three atoms bonded to the central atom. The central atom follows the octet rule. What is its electronic arrangement and its hybridization? 1. tetrahedral; sp3 2. tetrahedral; sp2 3. trigonal planar; sp3 4. angular; sp3 5. trigonal planar; sp2 6. pyramidal; sp3 7. pyramidal; sp  
Consider the hybridizations at the four different carbons in the molecule. The bond between C2 and C3 can be described as between orbitals: a) sp hybrid on C2 and sp2 hybrid on C3 b) sp2 hybrid on C2 and sp2 hyrid on C3 c) sp3 hybrid on C2 and sp3 hybrid on C3 d) unhybridized p on C2 and unhybridized p on C3 e) sp hyrid on C2 and sp hybrid on C3
One product of the combustion of methane is carbon dioxide. What change in hybridization of the carbon occurs in this reaction?   a) sp to sp3 b) sp2 to sp c) sp2 to sp3 d) sp3 to sp e) sp3 to sp2
A molecule has two lone non-bonded pairs of electrons on the central atom and four atoms bonded to the central atom. What is its molecular shape and its hybridization? 1. octahedral; sp3d 2. pyramidal; sp3 3. square pyramidal; sp3d2 4. tetrahedral; sp3d2 5. square planar; sp3d2 6. tetrahedral; sp3 7. square planr; sp3
Which of the following describes sp 2 hybridzation? A. Three orbitals are hybridized, one p-orbital remains unhybridized B. Three orbitals are hybridized, one s-orbital remains unhybridized C. Three orbitals are hybridized, no orbitals remain unhybridized D. Four orbitals are hybridized, no orbitals remain unhybridized E. Four orbitals are hybridized, one s-orbital remains unhybridized
Which type of hybrid orbital is used in CO2? a) sp b) sp2 c) sp3 d) dsp3
Give the hybridization for the O in OCl 2, assume that O is the central atom. A. sp B. sp2 C. sp3 D. sp3d E. sp3d2
Indicate the type of hybrid orbitals used by the central atom in PCl 3. 
N,N-diethyl-m-tolumide (DEET) is the active ingredient in many mosquito repellents. What is the hybridization state of carbon indicated by the arrow in the structure of DEET shown below?
(A) Complete the following table.  Hybrid type                      Geometry of electron pairs  a  ___________                linear  b     sp3                           _________  c  ___________                trigonal bipyramidal  d  ___________                octahedral  e      sp2                          __________      
Which image below is the correct depiction of the hybridized orbital for a carbon in a molecule of formaldehyde (CH2O)?
In the molecule below, how many of the atoms have sp 3 hybridization? (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4 (e) 5
Consider the Lewis structure shown below. What hybridization is exhibited by each of the carbon atoms?
Write a hybridization and bonding scheme for each molecule or ion.Select the correct hybridization for the central atom based on the electron geometry for BrF5.
Write a hybridization and bonding scheme for each molecule or ion.Select the correct hybridization for the central atom based on the electron geometry for I3-.
Bromine can form compounds or ions with any number of fluorine atoms from one to five.Assign a hybridization, and describe their electron and molecular geometry.
Shown here are three pairs of hybrid orbitals, with each set at a characteristic angle. For each pair, determine the type of hybridization, if any, that could lead to hybrid orbitals at the specified angle.
Consider the molecule BF3.What hybrid orbitals should be constructed on the B atom to make the B-F bonds in BF3?
Consider the molecule BF3.What valence orbitals, if any, remain unhybridized on the B atom in BF3?
For each statement, indicate whether it is true or false.To create a hybrid orbital, you could use the s orbital on one atom with a p orbital on another atom.
For each statement, indicate whether it is true or false.Nonbonding electron pairs cannot occupy a hybrid orbital.
The ion CH5+, can form under very special high-energy conditions in the vapor phase in a mass spectrometer.Propose a hybridization for the carbon atom.
Neither the VSEPR model nor the hybridization model is able to account for the experimental observation that the F  - Ba  - F bond angle in gaseous BaF2 is 108 rather than the predicted 180^circ . Suggest some possible explanations for this observation.
Propylene, C3 H6, is a gas that is used to form the important polymer called polypropylene. Its Lewis structure is shown in the diagram. the figure What is the hybridization at each carbon atom in the molecule?
In ozone, O3, the two oxygen atoms on the ends of the molecule are equivalent to one another.What is the best choice of hybridization scheme for the atoms of ozone?
Azo dyes are organic dyes that are used for many applications, such as the coloring of fabrics. Many azo dyes are derivatives of the organic substance azobenzene, C12 H10 N2. A closely related substance is hydrazobenzene, C12 H12 N2. The Lewis structures of these two substances are showin in the diagram. (Recall the shorthand notation used for organic molecules.)What is the hybridization at the N atom in each of the substances?
Consider the Lewis structure for glycine, the simplest amino acid: What are the hybridizations of the orbitals on each of the two carbon atoms?
Azo dyes are organic dyes that are used for many applications, such as the coloring of fabrics. Many azo dyes are derivatives of the organic substance azobenzene, C12 H10 N2. A closely related substance is hydrazobenzene, C12 H12 N2. The Lewis structures of these two substances are showin in the diagram. (Recall the shorthand notation used for organic molecules.)How many unhybridized atomic orbitals are there on the N and the C atoms in azobenzene?
Azo dyes are organic dyes that are used for many applications, such as the coloring of fabrics. Many azo dyes are derivatives of the organic substance azobenzene, C12 H10 N2. A closely related substance is hydrazobenzene, C12 H12 N2. The Lewis structures of these two substances are showin in the diagram. (Recall the shorthand notation used for organic molecules.)How many unhybridized atomic orbitals are there on the N and the C atoms in hydrazobenzene?
What is hybridization?
Why is hybridization necessary in valence bond theory?
How does hybridization of the atomic orbitals in the central atom of a molecule help lower the overall energy of the molecule?
When two atoms are bonded by a triple bond, what is the hybridization of the orbitals that make up the sigma -bond component of the bond?
How is the number of hybrid orbitals related to the number of standard atomic orbitals that are hybridized?
What is the hybridization of the carbon atoms in ethane?
The molecule 2-butene, C4 H8, can undergo a geometric change called cis-trans isomerization: As discussed in the "Chemistry and Life" box on the chemistry of vision, such transformations can be induced by light and are the key to human vision.What is the hybridization at the two central carbon atoms of 2-butene?
What is the hybridization of the carbon atoms in ethylene?
What is the hybridization of the carbon atoms in acetylene?
Determine the hybridization around nitrogen in N2.
How many sp hybrid orbitals result from the hybridization of s and p orbitals?
How many atomic orbitals form a set of sp3 hybrid orbitals?
How many atomic orbitals form a set of sp2 hybrid orbitals?
How many atomic orbitals form a set of sp hybrid orbitals?
Which central atom hybridization would you expect in the series BH4-, CH4, NH4+?
Indicate the hybridization of the central atom in BCl3.
Consider the molecule C4H5N, which has the connectivity shown below. How many atoms in the molecule exhibit sp hybridization, sp2 hybridization, and sp3 hybridization?
Consider nitrous acid, HNO2 (HONO).(c) What is the hybridization on the internal oxygen and nitrogen atoms in HNO 2?
Provide the following information for the molecule BrF3. Be sure to assign all non-zero formal charges, use wedges for bonds coming out of the paper and dashed lines for bonds  going into the plane of the paper, and only show the lone pairs on the central atom.
Provide the following information for the molecule SeO 2. Be sure to assign all non-zero formal charges, use wedges for bonds coming out of the paper and dashed lines for bonds going into the plane of the paper, and only show the lone pairs on the central atom.
Provide the following information for the molecule AsF3. Be sure to assign all non-zero formal charges, use wedges for bonds coming out of the paper and dashed lines for bonds going into the plane of the paper, and only show the lone pairs on the central atom.
Provide the following information for the molecule SeF3-. Be sure to assign all non-zero formal charges, use wedges for bonds coming out of the paper and dashed lines for bonds going into the plane of the paper, and only show the lone pairs on the central atom.
Provide the following information for the molecule SeCl2O2. Be sure to assign all non-zero formal charges, use wedges for bonds coming out of the paper and dashed lines for bonds going into the plane of the paper, and only show the lone pairs on the central atom.
Provide the following information for the generic dot structure given below. Be sure to use wedges for bonds coming out of the paper and dashed lines for bonds going into the plane of the paper and only show the lone pairs on the central atom.
Provide the following information for the generic dot structure given below. Be sure to use wedges for bonds coming out of the paper and dashed lines for bonds going into the plane of the paper and only show the lone pairs on the central atom.
Provide the following information for the generic dot structure given below. Be sure to use wedges for bonds coming out of the paper and dashed lines for bonds going into the plane of the paper and only show the lone pairs on the central atom.
Consider a molecule of PCl5. Indicate whether the statements below are true or false. Cl has a larger atomic radius than P.When the preferred Lewis structure is drawn, no lone pairs appear on P.PCl5 is a polar molecule.Its molecular geometry is trigonal bipyramidal.Its electron configuration is 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d2Cl has higher first ionization energy than P.The molecule has sp3 hybridization.PCl5 is phosphorus pentachloride.The bond between P and Cl is polar.
Provide the following information for the generic dot structure given below. Be sure to use wedges for bonds coming out of the paper and dashed lines for bonds going into the plane of the paper and only show the lone pairs on the central atom.
Determine the electron geometry (eg), molecular geometry (mg), and hybridization of XeF4 .A) Eg = tetrahedral, mg = tetrahedral, sp3 hybridizationB) Eg = linear, mg = linear, sp hybridization C) Eg = trigonal bipyramidal, mg = tetrahedral, sp3d hybridizationD) Eg = octahedral, mg = square planar, sp3d 2 hybridization
In which species can we describe the central atom as having sp 2 hybridization? a) BeF2 b) CO2 c) KrF2 d) SO2
What type of hybridization is exhibited by the central atom in CH 2O? a) sp2 b) sp c) sp3 d) sp3d e) sp3d2
Which of the following ions have the same hybridization at the central atom? SF3+     SO42-     I3-     PCl6-a) SF3+ and SO42-b) I3- and PCl6-c) SO42- and I3-d) SO42- and PCl6-e) SF3+ and PCl6-
Consider the following Lewis structure below and select which statement is false.a) there are 10 sigma and 2 pi bondsb) the C-2 atom is sp2 hybridized with bond angles of about 120°c) the oxygen atom is sp3 hybridizedd) this molecule contains 28 valence electronse) there are some H—C—H bond angles of about 109° in the molecule
For each molecule shown here, indicate the hybridization of the central atom.
Consider CH4 and CF4. Electronegativities: C = 2.5, H = 2.1, F = 4.0. Which statement is  false?a. Both are sp3 hybridized at carbon.b. The bond angles in CF4 are smaller than those in CH 4.c. The C-F bonds are more polar than the C-H bonds.d. Both molecules are nonpolar.e. The bond dipoles in CF4 are directed toward the fluorine, but those in CH 4 are directed toward the carbon atom.
For the compound ClF3:a. Draw the best Lewis structure.b. Determine the formal charge for all atoms.c. What is the electron domain geometry?d. What is the molecular shape?e. Is the molecule polar?f. What is the hybridization around the central atom?g. How many sigma bonds are present?h. How many pi bonds are present? 
Which of the following hybridization schemes allows the formation of at least one π  bond?I spII sp2III sp3 a) only Ib) only IIc) only IIId) I and IIe) I, II, and III
For the molecule below, write the correct Lewis dot structure. Be sure to indicate any resonance structures, then draw the free dimensional structure based on VSEPR theory. Be sure to name the molecular structure, the geometry from which it is derived, and give the hybridization of the central atom(s).SeF4  VSEPR structure:Molecular structure:Hybridization:
What is the hybridization of the central atom of each of the following molecules?SiCl4BCl3PCl5
What is the hybridization of the central iodine atom in I 3−?
How many of the following molecules have sp hybridization on the central atom? C2Cl2     CO2     O3     H2O A) 0 B) 3 C) 2 D) 4 E) 1
What is the electron-domain (charge-cloud)geometry of BrF5?What is the molecular geometry of BrF5?Ignoring lone pair effects, what is the smallest bond angle in BrF5?Express your answer as an integerWhat is the hybridization about the central atom in BrF5?Express your answer in analogy to the following example: sp2.Which choice best describes the polarity of BrF5? 
Label each carbon atom with the appropriate hybridization.
CO2Drag the appropriate labels to their respective targets. Note: not all labels will be used. 
If you assume sp3 hybridization for a free nitrogen atom, how many lone pairs of electrons will the free (not bonded to other atoms) nitrogen atom have? a. 0 b. 1 c. 2 d. 3 e. 4
Which concept describes the formation of four equivalent, single, covalent bonds by carbon in its compounds that resemble methane, CH4?a) hydrogen bondingb) hybridizationc) sigma bondingd) coordinate covalent bonding
What is the molecular geometry around a central atom that is sp3d hybridized and has one lone pair of electrons? 
Fill in the following table (see the ClF3 example). For the determination of formal charge(s) consider the Lewis formula with the smallest formal charges (lowest energy).
Write down Lewis structure of ICl 3 and provide answer of its electron pair geometry, molecular geometry and hybridization of iodine.
Which species is incorrectly matched with hybridization at the central atom? 1. NH4+ : sp3 2. BeBr2 : sp 3. BCl3 : sp2 4. SeF6 : sp3d  5. NH3 : sp3
Draw out the Lewis Structure and answer the following questions. KrF5+Number of Valence Electrons:Molecular Geometry:Electronic Geometry:Hybridization:Unhybridized Orbitals:Polarity:
Which of the following  molecular geometries would have an sp3 hybrid orbital structure? a. linear b. t-shaped c. bent d. triangular planar e. square pyramid
Draw out the Lewis Structure and answer the following questions. NO2+Number of Valence Electrons:Molecular Geometry:Electronic Geometry:Hybridization:Unhybridized Orbitals:Polarity:
What is the name of the hybrid orbitals used by phosphorus in PCl 3?
The hybridization of iodine in IF3 and IF5 are ____ and ____ respectively.
Indicate the type of hybrid orbitals used by the central atom in CCl 4. 1) sp 2) sp2 3) sp3 4) sp3d 5) sp3d2
A molecule has four unshared electrons on the central atom and four chlorine atoms bonded to the central atom. What is its molecular shape and its hybridization?1. square planar; sp32. pyramidal; sp33. octahedral; sp3d24. tetrahedral; sp35. square pyramidal; sp3d26. tetrahedral; sp3d27. square planar; sp3d2
If the symbol X represents a central atom, Y represents outer atoms, and Z represents lone pairs on the central atom, the structure Y--X(with 2 lone pairs)--Y can be abbreviated as XY2Z2 Classify these structures by the hybridization of the central atom in either. Classify the abbreviations into each hybridization categoryHYBRIDIZATIONS:sp, sp2, sp3, sp3d, sp3d2ABREVIATIONS:XY2,    XY3,    XY4,    XY5,    XY6,    XY2Z3,    XY2Z,    XY3Z2,    XY4Z,    XY4Z2,    XY3Z,    XY5Z,    XY2Z2
For the molecule IF5 determine the following:Molecular geometryElectron domain geometryHybridizationBond angle   For the molecule SeO2 determine the following:Molecular geometryElectron domain geometryHybridizationBond angle
What is the hybridization of phosphorus in each of the following molecules or ions?
Provide one example of each of the following molecular geometries, provide the approximate bond angle around the central atom, determine the hybridization of the central atom, and comment on the molecule’s polarity. a. Bentb. Octahedral ionc. Linear
Provide one example of each of the following molecular geometries, provide the approximate bond angle around the central atom, determine the hybridization of the central atom, and comment on the molecule’s polarity.             a. Tetrahedral             b. T-shaped             c. Square planar
What is the hybridization of the phosphorus of the following molecule PS2-?a. sp3b. sp2c. spd. sp3d
After sp3 hybridization, the carbon atom has: Check all that apply a. a total of four unpaired electrons b. four equal energy hybrid orbitals c. two unpaired electrons d.  hybrid orbitals of four distinctly different energies e. no unpaired electrons f. hybrid orbitals of two distinctly different energies g. hybrid orbitals with energy between that of the 2s and 2p orbitals h. the ability to form four bonds I. three hybrid orbitals and an unhybridized p orbital
What is the name of the hybrid orbitals used by chlorine in ClF 5?
What is the hybridization of the phosphorus in the following molecule PS43-?a. sp3b. sp2c. spd. sp3d
Sketch each set of hybrid orbitals.a. spb. sp2c. sp3d. sp3de. sp3d2
Give the hybridization scheme that corresponds to each electron geometry.a. linearb. trigonal planarc. tetrahedrald. trigonal bipyramidale. octahedral
Strike-anywhere matches contain a layer of KClO3 and a layer of P4S3. The heat produced by the friction of striking the match causes these two compounds to react vigorously, which sets fire to the wooden stem of the match. KClO3 contains the ClO3− ion. P4S3 is an unusual molecule with the skeletal structure.(c) Assign a hybridization to the P atoms, the S atom, and the Cl atom in these species.
Identify the hybridization of each carbon atom in the following molecule. (The arrangement of atoms is given; you need to determine how many bonds connect each pair of atoms.)
Write Lewis structures for NF3 and PF5. On the basis of hybrid orbitals, explain the fact that NF3, PF3, and PF5 are stable molecules, but NF5 does not exist.
A variety of chlorine oxide fluorides and related cations and anions are known. They tend to be powerful oxidizing and fluorinating agents. FClO3 is the most stable of this group of compounds and has been studied as an oxidizing component in rocket propellants. Draw a Lewis structure for F3ClO, F2ClO2+, and F3ClO2. What is the molecular structure for each species, and what is the expected hybridization of the central chlorine atom in each compound or ion?
In addition to NF3, two other fluoro derivatives of nitrogen are known: N2F4 and N2F2. What shapes do you predict for these two molecules? What is the hybridization for the nitrogen in each molecule?
Draw the Lewis structures for TeCl 4, ICl5, PCl5, KrCl4, and XeCl2. Which of the compounds exhibit at least one bond angle that is approximately 120 degrees? Which of the compounds exhibit d 2sp3 hybridization? Which of the compounds have a square planar molecular structure? Which of the compounds are polar?
Draw the Lewis structures for SO 2, PCl 3, NNO, COS, and PF 3. Which of the compounds are polar? Which of the compounds exhibit at least one bond angle that is approximately 120 degrees? Which of the compounds exhibit sp3 hybridization by the central atom? Which of the compounds have a linear molecular structure?
Amino acids are biological compounds that link together to form proteins, the workhorse molecules in living organisms.Determine the hybridization about each interior atom.
The valence electron configurations of several atoms are shown. How many bonds can each atom make without hybridization?B: 2s2 2p1
The valence electron configurations of several atoms are shown. How many bonds can each atom make without hybridization?N:  2s2 2p3
The valence electron configurations of several atoms are shown. How many bonds can each atom make without hybridization?O: 2s2 2p4
The valence electron configurations of several atoms are shown. How many bonds can each atom make without hybridization?P: 3s23p3
The valence electron configurations of several atoms are shown. How many bonds can each atom make without hybridization?F: 2s22p5
Write a hybridization and bonding scheme for each molecule or ion.Select the correct hybridization for the central atom based on the electron geometry for COCl2 (carbon is the central atom).
What hybrid orbitals should be constructed on the S atom to make the S - Cl bonds in SCl2?
What valence orbitals, if any, remain unhybridized on the S atom in SCl2?
Sodium azide is a shock-sensitive compound that releases N2 upon physical impact. The compound is used in automobile airbags. The azide ion is N3–. State the hybridization of the central N atom in the azide ion.
Determine the hybridization about oxygen in CH3OH.
In the formate ion, HCO2–, the carbon atom is the central atom with the other three atoms attached to it. What hybridization is exhibited by the C atom?
Determine the hybridization about carbon in H2CO.
How many hybrid orbitals do we use to describe each molecule?C2H5NO (4 C - H bonds and one O - H bond)
How many hybrid orbitals do we use to describe each molecule?BrCN (with no formal charges)
The N2O molecule is linear and polar.a. On the basis of this experimental evidence, which arrangement, NNO or NON, is correct? Explain your answer.b. On the basis of your answer to part a, write the Lewis structure of N  2O (including resonance forms). Give the formal charge on each atom and the hybridization of the central atom.
Complete the following resonance structures for POCl 3.b. What is the hybridization of P in each structure?
Indigo is the dye used in coloring blue jeans. The term navy blue is derived from the use of indigo to dye British naval uniforms in the eighteenth century. The structure of the indigo molecule isb. What hybrid orbitals are used by the carbon atoms in the indigo molecule?
Which hybridization scheme occurs about nitrogen when nitrogen forms a double bond?
Predict the shape, state the hybridization of the central atom, and give the ideal bond angle(s) and any expected deviations for BrO3−.
Predict the shape, state the hybridization of the central atom, and give the ideal bond angle(s) and any expected deviations for AsCl4−.
The three most stable oxides of carbon are carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and carbon suboxide (C3O2). The space-filling models for these three compounds areFor each oxide, draw the Lewis structure, predict the molecular structure, and describe the bonding (in terms of the hybrid orbitals for the carbon atoms).
Predict the shape, state the hybridization of the central atom, and give the ideal bond angle(s) and any expected deviations for SeO42−.
The central atom in a molecule has a bent molecular geometry. Determine the hybridization of the orbitals in the atom.
Predict the shape, state the hybridization of the central atom, and give the ideal bond angle(s) and any expected deviations for BiF52−.
Choose the correct hybridization for xenon in XeF4 based on the electron geometry.
Predict the shape, state the hybridization of the central atom, and give the ideal bond angle(s) and any expected deviations for SbF4+.
Predict the shape, state the hybridization of the central atom, and give the ideal bond angle(s) and any expected deviations for AlF63−.
Select the correct hybridization for carbon in HCN based on the electron geometry.
Two structures can be drawn for cyanuric acid:b. Give the hybridization of the carbon and nitrogen atoms in each structure.
Two molecules used in the polymer industry are azodicarbonamide and methyl cyanoacrylate. Their structures areAzodicarbonamide is used in forming polystyrene. When added to the molten plastic, it decomposes to nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and ammonia gases, which are captured as bubbles in the molten polymer. Methyl cyanoacrylate is  super glue. As the glue sets, methyl cyanoacrylate polymerizes across the carbon–carbon double bond. b. Which hybrid orbitals are used by the carbon atoms in each molecule and the nitrogen atom in azodicarbonamide?
You may want to reference (Pages 448 - 460) Section 10.7 while completing this problem.What is the hybridization of the central iodine atom in I3–?
Epinephrine (or adrenaline; below) is a naturally occurring hormone that is also manufactured commercially for use as a heart stimulant, a nasal decongestant, and a glaucoma treatment.What is the hybridization of each C, O, and N atom?
Give the expected hybridization of the central atom for the molecule or ion.a. CCl4
Vitamin B6 is an organic compound whose deficiency in the human body can cause apathy, irritability, and an increased susceptibility to infections. Below is an incomplete Lewis structure for vitamin B6. Complete the Lewis structure and answer the following questions. Hint: Vitamin B6 can be classified as an organic compound (a compound based on carbon atoms). The majority of Lewis structures for simple organic compounds have all atoms with a formal charge of zero. Therefore, add lone pairs and multiple bonds to the structure below to give each atom a formal charge of zero.c. How many carbon atoms are sp2 hybridized?
Identify the hybridization of the central atom of the following molecules and ions that contain multiple bonds:(a) ClNO (N is the central atom)
Give the expected hybridization of the central atom for the molecule or ion.b. NCl3 
Vitamin B6 is an organic compound whose deficiency in the human body can cause apathy, irritability, and an increased susceptibility to infections. Below is an incomplete Lewis structure for vitamin B6. Complete the Lewis structure and answer the following questions. Hint: Vitamin B6 can be classified as an organic compound (a compound based on carbon atoms). The majority of Lewis structures for simple organic compounds have all atoms with a formal charge of zero. Therefore, add lone pairs and multiple bonds to the structure below to give each atom a formal charge of zero.d. How many carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen atoms are sp3 hybridized?
Give the expected hybridization of the central atom for the molecule or ion.c. SeCl2
Give the expected hybridization of the central atom for the molecule or ion.d. ICl
Draw the Lewis structures, predict the molecular structures, and describe the bonding (in terms of the hybrid orbitals for the central atom) for the following. a. XeO3
Draw the Lewis structures, predict the molecular structures, and describe the bonding (in terms of the hybrid orbitals for the central atom) for the following. b. XeO4
Draw the Lewis structures, predict the molecular structures, and describe the bonding (in terms of the hybrid orbitals for the central atom) for the following. c. XeOF4
Draw the Lewis structures, predict the molecular structures, and describe the bonding (in terms of the hybrid orbitals for the central atom) for the following. d. XeOF2
Identify the hybridization of the central atom of the following molecules and ions that contain multiple bonds:(b) CS2
The nitrogen atoms in N2 participate in multiple bonding, whereas those in hydrazine, N2H4, do not.What is the hybridization of the nitrogen atoms in N2?
Isoniazid (below) is an antibacterial agent that is very useful in treating many common strains of tuberculosis.What is the hybridization of each C and N atom?
The nitrogen atoms in N2 participate in multiple bonding, whereas those in hydrazine, N2H4, do not.What is the hybridization of the nitrogen atoms in N2H4?
Draw the Lewis structures, predict the molecular structures, and describe the bonding (in terms of the hybrid orbitals for the central atom) for the following. e. XeO3F2
The lactic acid molecule, CH3CH (OH) COOH, gives sour milk its unpleasant, sour taste.What is the hybridization of atomic orbitals around each atom associated with that short bond?
If additional air is added to the blue balloon so that it gets larger, will the angle between the red and green balloons increase, decrease, or stay the same?Which of the following aspects of the VSEPR model is illustrated by the earlier question?(i) The electron-domain geometry for four electron domains is tetrahedral.(ii) The electron domains for nonbonding pairs are larger than those for bonding pairs.(iii) The hybridization that corresponds to a trigonal planar electron-domain geometry is sp2.
Give the expected hybridization of the central atom for the molecules or ions.e. NO2-, NO3-, N2O4 (N2O4 exists as O2NO—NO2.)
Identify the hybridization of the central atom of the following molecules and ions that contain multiple bonds:(c) Cl2CO (C is the central atom)
Hydrazine, N2H4, and carbon disulfide, CS2, react to form a cyclic molecule (below). How do electron-group arrangement, molecular shape, and hybridization of N change when N2H4 reacts to form the product?
Give the expected hybridization of the central atom for the molecules or ions.f. OCN-, SCN-, N3- (Carbon is the central atom in OCN - and SCN-.)
Hydrazine, N2H4, and carbon disulfide, CS2, react to form a cyclic molecule (below). How do electron-group arrangement, molecular shape, and hybridization of C change when CS2 reacts to form the product?
Identify the hybridization of the central atom of the following molecules and ions that contain multiple bonds:(d) Cl2SO (S is the central atom)
In the following equation, what hybridization change, if any, occurs for the underlined atom?BF3 + NaF ⟶ Na +BF4−
In the following equation, what hybridization change, if any, occurs for the underlined atom?PCl3 + Cl 2 ⟶ PCl5
In the following equation, what hybridization change, if any, occurs for the underlined atom?HC≡CH + H2 ⟶ H2C=CH2
Identify the hybridization of the central atom of the following molecules and ions that contain multiple bonds:(e) SO2F2 (S is the central atom)
You may want to reference (Pages 356 - 361) Section 9.5 while completing this problem.The orbital diagram that follows presents the final step in the formation of hybrid orbitals by a silicon atom.What type of hybrid orbital is produced in this hybridization?
In the following equation, what hybridization change, if any, occurs for the underlined atom?SiF4 + 2 F− ⟶ SiF62−
You may want to reference (Pages 356 - 361) Section 9.5 while completing this problem.The orbital diagram that follows presents the final step in the formation of hybrid orbitals by a silicon atom.Which of the following best describes what took place before the step pictured in the diagram?(i) Two 3p electrons became unpaired.(ii) An electron was promoted from the 2p orbital to the 3s orbital.(iii) An electron was promoted from the 3s orbital to the 3p orbital.
Hot and spicy foods contain molecules that stimulate paindetecting nerve endings. Two such molecules are piperine and capsaicin:Piperine is the active compound in white and black pepper, and capsaicin is the active compound in chili peppers. The ring structures in piperine and capsaicin are shorthand notation. Each point where lines meet represents a carbon atom.b. How many carbon atoms are sp, sp2, and sp3 hybridized in each molecule?
In the following equation, what hybridization change, if any, occurs for the underlined atom?SO2 + 1/2 O 2 ⟶ SO3
Identify the hybridization of the central atom of the following molecules and ions that contain multiple bonds:(f) XeO2F2 (Xe is the central atom)
What is the angle formed between the large lobes of the three sp2 hybrid orbitals?
Give the expected hybridization of the central atom for the molecules or ions. a. POCl3, SO42-, XeO4, PO43-, ClO4-
What is the orientation of the two unhybridized p orbitals on Be with respect to the two Be–F bonds?
Give the expected hybridization of the central atom for the molecules or ions. b. NF3, SO32-, PO33-, ClO3-
Consider the Lewis structure for glycine, the simplest amino acid:What are the hybridizations of the orbitals on the two oxygens and the nitrogen atom, and what are the approximate bond angles at the nitrogen?
In an sp2 hybridized atom, we saw that there was one unhybridized 2p orbital. How many unhybridized 2p orbitals remain on an atom that has sp3 hybrid orbitals?
Give the expected hybridization of the central atom for the molecules or ions. c. ClO2-, SCl2, PCl2-
Identify the hybridization of the central atom of the following molecules and ions that contain multiple bonds:(g) ClOF2 + (Cl is the central atom)
You may want to reference (Pages 362 - 368) Section 9.6 while completing this problem.If the valence atomic orbitals of an atom are sp hybridized, how many unhybridized p orbitals remain in the valence shell?
Give the expected hybridization of the central atom for the molecule or ion. d. O3
Consider the Lewis structure for glycine, the simplest amino acid:What are the approximate bond angles about each of the two carbon atoms, and what are the hybridizations of the orbitals on each of them?
You may want to reference (Pages 362 - 368) Section 9.6 while completing this problem.If the valence atomic orbitals of an atom are sp hybridized, how many unhybridized p orbitals remain in the valence shell? How many π pibonds can the atom form?
Give the expected hybridization of the central atom for the molecule or ion. e. SO2
Hot and spicy foods contain molecules that stimulate paindetecting nerve endings. Two such molecules are piperine and capsaicin:Piperine is the active compound in white and black pepper, and capsaicin is the active compound in chili peppers. The ring structures in piperine and capsaicin are shorthand notation. Each point where lines meet represents a carbon atom.c. Which hybrid orbitals are used by the nitrogen atoms in each molecule?
Give the expected hybridization of the central atom for the molecule or ion. f. SO3
Tryptophan is one of the amino acids found in proteins:What is the hybridization of each of the numbered C, N, and O atoms?
Give the number and type of hybrid orbital that forms when each set of atomic orbitals mixes:(a) two d, one s, and three p 
Give the expected hybridization of the central atom for the molecule.a. SeO3
Give the expected hybridization of the central atom for the molecule.b. SeO2
You may want to reference (Pages 362 - 368) Section 9.6 while completing this problem.Write a single Lewis structure for SO3. Determine the hybridization at the S atom.
Give the expected hybridization of the central atom for the molecule.c. PCl3
Give the number and type of hybrid orbital that forms when each set of atomic orbitals mixes:(b) three p and one s
The compound with the following Lewis structure is acetylsalicylic acid, better known as aspirin: .What hybrid orbitals are used about the central atom of angles labeled 1, 2, and 3?
Why is it important that the sp2 hybrid orbitals of the two carbon atoms lie in the same plane?
Give the expected hybridization of the central atom for the molecule.d. SCl2
Describe the molecular geometry and hybridization of the N, P, or S atom of the following compound.(a) H3PO4, phosphoric acid, used in cola soft drinks.
One of the first drugs to be approved for use in treatment of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was azidothymidine (AZT). Complete the Lewis structure for AZT.a. How many carbon atoms are sp3 hybridized?
Give the expected hybridization of the central atom for the molecule.e. SiF4
Give the number and type of hybrid orbital that forms when each set of atomic orbitals mixes:(a) one p and one s 
You may want to reference (Pages 362 - 368) Section 9.6 while completing this problem.What is the hybridization of the underlined atom in CH3CO2–?
One of the first drugs to be approved for use in treatment of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was azidothymidine (AZT). Complete the Lewis structure for AZT.b. How many carbon atoms are sp2 hybridized?
Describe the molecular geometry and hybridization of the N, P, or S atom of the following compound.(b) NH4NO3, ammonium nitrate, a fertilizer and explosive.
You may want to reference (Pages 362 - 368) Section 9.6 while completing this problem.What is the hybridization of the underlined atom in PH4+?
Give the number and type of hybrid orbital that forms when each set of atomic orbitals mixes:(b) three p, one d, and one s
You may want to reference (Pages 362 - 368) Section 9.6 while completing this problem.What is the hybridization of the underlined atom in AlF3?
One of the first drugs to be approved for use in treatment of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was azidothymidine (AZT). Complete the Lewis structure for AZT.c. Which atom is sp hybridized?
You may want to reference (Pages 362 - 368) Section 9.6 while completing this problem.What is the hybridization of the underlined atom in H2C=CH-CH2+?
Describe the molecular geometry and hybridization of the N, P, or S atom of the following compound.(c) S2Cl2, disulfur dichloride, used in vulcanizing rubber.
A compound composed of 2.1% H, 29.8% N, and 68.1% O has a molar mass of approximately 50 g/mol. What is the hybridization of the orbitals around the N atom?
What is the hybridization of nitrogen in each of the following: (a) NO; 
What is the hybridization of nitrogen in each of the following: (b) NO2; 
What is the hybridization of nitrogen in each of the following: (c) NO2−?
Give the expected hybridization of the central atom for the molecule.b. ICl3
What is the hybridization of carbon in each of the following:(a) CO32−; 
Give the expected hybridization of the central atom for the molecule.c. TeF4
What is the hybridization of the carbon atoms in each molecule: ethane (C2H6), ethylene (C2H4), and acetylene (C2H2)?
Give the expected hybridization of the central atom for the molecule.d. PCl5
Give the expected hybridization of the central atom for the molecule.e. ICl5
What is the hybridization of carbon in each of the following:(b) C2O42−; 
Give the expected hybridization of the central atom for the molecule.f. XeCl4
What is the hybridization of carbon in each of the following:(c) NCO−?
What is the hybridization of chlorine in each of the following:(a) ClO2; 
What is the hybridization of chlorine in each of the following:(c) ClO4−?