Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous ReactionsWorksheetSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds

Electrolytes are compounds that can conduct electricity once they are dissolved in a solvent. 

Understanding Electrolytes

Concept #1: The Classification of Electrolytes

Whenever you add a solute to a solvent there are three possible outcomes: the solute dissolves completely, dissolves partially or doesn't dissolve at all into ions. 

Concept #2: The Strong Electrolytes

Strong Electrolytes break up into ions completely and are grouped into 3 categories: Strong Acids, Strong Bases and Soluble Ionic Compounds

Concept #3: The Weak Electrolytes

Weak Electrolytes partially break up into ions and are grouped into 2 categories: Weak Acids and Weak Bases

Concept #4: The Non-Electrolytes

Non-Electrolytes do NOT break up into ions at all and are commonly referred to as molecular compounds

Example #1: Each of the following reactions depicts a solute dissolving in water. Classify each solute as a strong electrolyte, a weak electrolyte or a non-electrolyte. 

a.  PbSO4 (s) → PbSO4 (aq) 

b.  HC2H3O2 (aq)  ⇌  H+ (aq) + C2H3O2 (aq)

c.  CaS (s) → Ca2+(aq) + S2- (aq)

d.  Hg (l) → Hg (aq)

Based on different classifications of electrolytes we can expand to other compounds. 

Practice: Classify each of the following solutes as either a strong electrolyte, a weak electrolyte or a non-electrolyte.

a. Perbromic acid, HBrO4

b. Lithium chloride, LiCl

c. Formic Acid, HCO2H

d. Methylamine, CH3NH2

e. Zinc bromide, ZnBr2

f. Propanol, C3H8OH


Additional Problems
Which of the following compounds is a non-electrolyte? A. NaCl B. Na2CO3 C. KBr D. C2H6O E. HCl
Which of the following water soluble compounds does not conduct an appreciable current in aqueous solution by means of ion movement ? a. CH3COOH (acetic acid) b. NaNO3 c. CH3CH2OH (ethyl alcohol) d. KCl e. HF
Choose the statement below that is TRUE. A. A molecular compound that does not ionize in solution is considered a strong electrolyte. B. A strong acid solution consists of only partially ionized acid molecules. C. A weak acid solution consists of mostly non-ionized (or non-dissociated) acid molecules. D. The term "weak electrolyte" means that the substance is inert. E. The term "strong electrolyte" means that the substance is extremely reactive.
Which of the following is considered a STRONG electrolyte? A. CH3SH B. NH4NO3 C. C12H22O11 D. HC2H3O2 E. all of the above
Which of the following is a weak electrolyte in aqueous solution? a) HF b) NaF c) HCl d) KCl
Which of the following are strong electrolytes? i) HBr ii) HC2H3O2 iii) NH3 iv) KNO3 a) i, iv b) i, iii, iv c) i, ii, iii, iv d) i, ii, iv e) ii, iv
HCl, KOH,LiCl, and KI are ALL classified as       A) nonelectrolytes.      B) weak electrolytes.              C) strong electrolytes.      D) acids.
Which of the following is a strong electrolyte?      A) CH4            B) NH4NO3     C) H2O            D) CH3OH                  E) CCl4
Which of the following is considered a STRONG electrolyte? a) NH4NO3 b) C12H22O11 c) PbBr2 d) HC2H3O2 e) CH3SH
HCl, HI, H2SO4, LiCl, and KI are all classified as       A) nonelectrolytes      B) weak electrolytes               C) strong electrolytes              D) strong acids
Three different substances, A2X, A2Y, and A2Z, were dissolved in water with the following results. (Water molecules are omitted for clarity.) Which is the strongest electrolyte, and which is the weakest?
Which of the following would best represent a strong acid, HX, in aqueous solution (water is omitted)?
Which of the following aqueous solutions is a nonelectrolyte? A. HF B. NaClO4 C. C12H22O11 D. NH3 E. FeCl3
Which of the following is a weak electrolyte? 1. CaCl2(aq)           2. HNO3(aq)          3. C2H6O(aq)          4. H3PO4(aq)
Which of the following is both a weak acid and a weak electrolyte? A. HF B. NH3 C. CH3OH D. HCl  E. HNO3
Which of these compounds is a strong electrolyte? A)  H2O B)  O2                     C)  H2SO4              D)  C6H12O6 (glucose)      E)  CH3COOH (acetic acid)
Potassium phosphate, K3PO4, sodium iodide, Nal, magnesium chloride, MgCl 2, methanol, CH3OH, and ammonium chloride, NH4Cl, are soluble in water. Which would be the strongest electrolyte per mole of dissolved solute? a) K3PO4 b) Nal c) MgCl2 d) CH3OH e) NH4Cl
Which of the following is  NOT a strong electrolyte? a) LiOH        b) CaCl2        c) MgCO3        d) NaC2H3O2         e) Li2SO4
Which of the following is considered a STRONG electrolyte? a) NH4NO3    b) C12H22O11        c) PbCl2        d) HC2H3O2        e) CH3OH
Which of the following statements is/are true? i. Na3PO4 is soluble ii. Cu(C2H3O2)2 is insoluble iii. Hg2Cl2 is insoluble a. iii only b. i, ii and iii c. ii and iii d. i and iii e. i and ii
Which of the following statements is/are correct?  a)    Nitric acid is a weak electrolyte b)    Strontium hydroxide is a strong electrolyte c)    CH3CH2OH  is a weak electrolyte d)    NaCl is a non-electrolyte e)    Hydrobromic acid is a weak electrolyte
The dissolution of a compound is given by the reaction below:  Identify each of the following solutions as either electrolytic, weakly electrolytic or non-electrolytic. 
Which one of the following compounds is a nonelectrolyte when dissolved in water? a) calcium chloride (CaCl2) b) potassium hydroxide (KOH) c) sodium acetate (NaCH3CO2) d) acetic acid (CH3CO2H) e) glucose (C6H12O6)
Salts may be either strong or weak electrolytes. Which of the following is considered to be the salt? a) HF b) C12H22O11 c) AgBr d) HC2H3O2 e) HBrO
Which of the following is a strong electrolyte? A. Glucose (C12H22O11) B. Acetic acid (HC2H3O2) C. Methane (CH4) D. Hydrochloric acid (HCl)
Which of the following compounds is a weak acid, or weak electrolyte? a) HI b) HCl c) CH3CO2H d) HClO4 e) HNO3
Electrolyte Classifications
Which of the following aqueous solutions would not conduct electricity at all? a) HNO3 b) CaCl2 c) H2CO d) KOH e) H3PO4
How many of the following compounds are soluble in water? CuS                 K2SO4             NH4NO3         Ca3(PO4)2          AgBr A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4 E) 5
Which of the following is a weak electrolyte?             a) HBr            b) KOH          c) CH3OH                  d) RbOH        e) HF
Explain how a strong electrolyte, a weak electrolyte, and a nonelectrolyte differ.
Which of the following is a strong electrolyte? A. Glucose (C12H22O11) B. Acetic acid (HC2H3O2)  C. Methane (CH4)  D. Hydrochloric acid (HCI) 
Partial ionization is associated with which of the following? A. Strong acids B. Nonelectrolytes C. Weak acids D. Strong electrolytes
Which of the following is not a weak electrolyte? a. CH3COOH b. HF c. NH3 d. HNO3 e. all these are weak electrolytes
An aqueous solution of an unknown solute is tested with litmus paper and found to be acidic. The solution is weakly conducting compared with a solution of NaCl of the same concentration.Which of the following substances could the unknown be: KOH, NH3, HNO3, KClO2, H3PO3, CH3COCH3 (acetone)?
Explain how a strong electrolyte, a weak electrolyte, and a non-electrolyte differ.
Aqueous solutions of three different substances, AX, AY, and AZ, are represented by the three diagrams below.Identify each substance as a strong electrolyte, weak electrolyte, or nonelectrolyte.
A solution contains one or more of the following ions: Hg2 2 + , Ba2 + , and Fe2 + . When potassium chloride is added to the solution, a precipitate forms. The precipitate is filtered off and potassium sulfate is added to the remaining solution, producing no precipitate. When potassium carbonate is added to the remaining solution, a precipitate forms.Which ions were present in the original solution?
What does it mean for a compound to be soluble? Insoluble?
Write the chemical formula for the cation present in the aqueous solution of AgNO3.
Write the chemical formula for the anion present in the aqueous solution of Pb(C2H3O2)2.
Write the chemical formula for the anion present in the aqueous solution of KNO3.
Write the chemical formula for the cation present in the aqueous solution of (NH4)2S.
Write the chemical formula for the anion present in the aqueous solution of (NH4)2S.
Which of the schematic drawings best describes a solution of Li2SO4 in water (water molecules not shown for simplicity)?
On the basis of the general solubility rules given in Table 4.1, predict which of the following substances are likely to be soluble in water.e. cobalt(III) sulfide
On the basis of the general solubility rules given in Table 4.1, predict which of the following substances are likely to be soluble in water.f. chromium(III) hydroxide
On the basis of the general solubility rules given in Table 4.1, predict which of the following substances are likely to be soluble in water.g. magnesium carbonate
On the basis of the general solubility rules given in Table 4.1, predict which of the following substances are likely to be soluble in water.h. ammonium carbonate
Which of the following statements is/are INCORRECT?1. Water soluble ionic compounds, such as NaCl, are all strong electrolytes.2. Some acids are strong acids while others are weak.  The acids HF and HNO2 are examples of strong acids.3. Only Group 1 (1A) hydroxides are soluble in water. a. 1 and 2 onlyb. 2 and 3 onlyc. 1 and 3 onlyd. 1 only or 2 only or 3 onlye. 1, 2, and 3 
Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?    i. KBr, HI, and Mg(OH) 2 are strong electrolytes    ii. NaH, CH 3COOH, and NH3 are weak electrolytes    iii. C3H7OH, C6H11O6, and O2 are non-electrolytes A) i only B) ii only C) iii only D) i and ii E) i and iii
In a sugar solution, molecules dissolve as __ . A. individual ionsB. intact moleculesC. strong electrolytesD. redox components
Which of the following are not electrolytes: a. Li2S b. BaCl2 c. K2C2O4 d. C3H8O3 e. SrSO4
Differentiate between what happens when the following are dissolved in water.b. KF versus C 6H12O6 
Differentiate between what happens when the following are dissolved in water.c. RbCl versus AgCl
Differentiate between what happens when the following are dissolved in water.d. HNO3 versus CO
Classify these compounds as soluble or insoluble. Drag the appropriate items to their repective bins.
Which of the following statements is(are) true? For the false statements, correct them.a. A concentrated solution in water will always contain a strong or weak electrolyte.
Which of the following statements is(are) true? For the false statements, correct them.b. A strong electrolyte will break up into ions when dissolved in water.
Which of the following statements is(are) true? For the false statements, correct them.c. An acid is a strong electrolyte.
Which of the following schematic drawings best describes a solution of Li2SO4 in water (water molecules not shown for simplicity)?
Methanol, CH3OH, and hydrogen chloride, HCl, are both molecular substances, yet an aqueous solution of methanol does not conduct an electrical current, whereas a solution of HCl does conduct. Account for this difference.
Which of the following statements is(are) true? For the false statements, correct them.d. All ionic compounds are strong electrolytes in water.
A 0.1 M solution of acetic acid, CH3COOH, causes the lightbulb in the apparatus of Figure 4.2 to glow about as brightly as a 0.001 M solution of HBr. How do you account for this fact?
You are presented with three white solids, A, B, and C, which are glucose (a sugar substance), NaOH, and AgBr. Solid A dissolves in water to form a conducting solution. B is not soluble in water. C dissolves in water to form a nonconducting solution. Identify A, B, and C.
Which of the following statements is (are) true? For the false statements, correct them.a. A concentrated solution in water will always contain a strong or weak electrolyte.
Which of the following statements is (are) true? For the false statements, correct them.b. A strong electrolyte will break up into ions when dissolved in water.
Which of the following statements is (are) true? For the false statements, correct them.c. An acid is a strong electrolyte.
Which of the following statements is (are) true? For the false statements, correct them.d. All ionic compounds are strong electrolytes in water.
When asked what causes electrolyte solutions to conduct electricity, a student responds that it is due to the movement of electrons through the solution. Is the student correct? If not, what is the correct response?
Ammonium hydroxide is a weak base becausea. it is a dilute solutionb. It is not soluble in waterc. it cannot hold on to its hydroxide ionsd. it dissociates only slightly in watere. it is completely ionized in aqueous solution 
Which of the following aqueous solutions is a nonelectrolyte? A. HFB. NaClO4 C. C12H22O11 D. NH3E. FeCl3
Indicate the concentration of each ion or molecule present in the following solutions: (c) 0.0150 M C6H12O6Assume that the volumes are additive.
Substance X is a molecular compound and is not an acid. Based just on this information, what can you determine about substance X? Check all that apply.a. X is soluble in water.b. X is insoluble in water.c. X is an electrolyte.d. X is not an electrolyte.
Show how each of the following strong electrolytes “breaks up” into its component ions upon dissolving in water by drawing molecular-level pictures.a. NaBr
Which of the following would you least expect to find in CaCl 2(aq)?a. H2O moleculesb. CaCl2 moleculesc. Ca2+ ionsd. Cl- ions
Specify what ions are present upon dissolving each of the following substances in water: (a) MgI2
Specify what ions are present upon dissolving each of the following substances in water: (b) Al(NO3)3
Which of the following solutions will have the highest electrical conductivity?A) 0.045 M Al 2(SO4)3B) 0.050 M (NH 4)2CO3C) 0.10 M LiBrD) 0.10 M NaIE) 0.10 M KF
Which one of the following compounds is insoluble in water?a. Fe(NO3)3 b. K2SO4 c. ZnSd. Na2CO3e. NaCl
Specify what ions are present upon dissolving each of the following substances in water: (c) HClO4
Specify what ions are present upon dissolving each of the following substances in water: (d) NaCH3COO.
What is the non-electrolyte among the set? a) NaCl b) CH3CH2CH2OH c) LiOH d) BaCl2 e) K2O2
Which of the following aqueous solutions would be a strong electrolyte: a. HBrO b. HF c. NH3 d. C6H6O e. HCI
Predict whether the following compounds are soluble or insoluble in water:NH4Br, CuBr2, Agl, Pb(NO3)2, CuCO3, CaSO4
Predict whether each of the following compounds is soluble in water: (a) Ni(OH) 2
Predict whether each of the following compounds is soluble in water: (b) PbBr 2
Predict whether each of the following compounds is soluble in water: (c) Ba(NO3)2
Predict whether each of the following compounds is soluble in water: (d) AlPO4
In water, a substance that ionizes completely in solution is called a:a. electrolyteb. weak electrolytec. nonconductord. nonelectrolyte 
What is the difference between (b) a weak acid and a strong acid
What is the difference between (c) an acid and a base?
Which of the following would be a strong electrolyte: i. KCIO3 ii. HI iii. HC2H3O2 A. i only B. iii only C. i and ii D. i and iii E. ii and iii
Which of the following statements is TRUE?a. Ionic compounds at room temperature typically conduct electricity.b. An ionic bond is formed through the sharing of electrons.c. An ionic bond is generally formed between a metal and a nonmetal.d. Once dissolved in water, ionic compounds rarely conduct electricity.e. None of the above are true.
Classify these compounds as strong electrolytes, weak electrolytes, or nonelectrolytes.AgClO3 NH3 Fe(OH)2 NaOHH2SO4 HClOHNO2 HClZn(NO3)2
HO, HBr, and HI are strong acids, yet HF is a weak acid. What does this mean in terms of the extent to which these substances are ionized in solution?
Label each of the following substances as an acid, base, salt, or none of the above. Indicate whether the substance exists in aqueous solution entirely in molecular form, entirely as ions, or as a mixture of molecules and ions. (a) HF
Label each of the following substances as an acid, base, salt, or none of the above. Indicate whether the substance exists in aqueous solution entirely in molecular form, entirely as ions, or as a mixture of molecules and ions. (b) acetonitrile, CH3CN
Label each of the following substances as an acid, base, salt, or none of the above. Indicate whether the substance exists in aqueous solution entirely in molecular form, entirely as ions, or as a mixture of molecules and ions. (c) NaClO4
Label each of the following substances as an acid, base, salt, or none of the above. Indicate whether the substance exists in aqueous solution entirely in molecular form, entirely as ions, or as a mixture of molecules and ions. (d) Ba(OH)2
An aqueous solution of an unknown solute is tested with litmus paper and found to be acidic. The solution is weakly conducting compared with a solution of NaCl of the same concentration. Which of the following substances could the unknown be: KOH, NH3, HNO3, KClO2, H3PO3, CH3COCH3 (acetone)?
Classify each of the following substances as a nonelectrolyte, weak electrolyte, or strong electrolyte in water: (a) H2SO3
Classify each of the following substances as a nonelectrolyte, weak electrolyte, or strong electrolyte in water: (b) C2H5OH (ethanol)
Classify each of the following substances as a nonelectrolyte, weak electrolyte, or strong electrolyte in water: (c) NH3
Classify each of the following substances as a nonelectrolyte, weak electrolyte, or strong electrolyte in water: (d) KClO3
Classify each of the following substances as a nonelectrolyte, weak electrolyte, or strong electrolyte in water: (e) Cu(NO3)2.
Which of the following is a soluble, strong base?a. Sr(OH)2b. NH2OHc. Fe(OH)3d. Cr(OH)3e. Be(OH)2
Classify each of the following aqueous solutions as a nonelectrolyte, weak electrolyte, or strong electrolyte: (a) HClO4
Classify each of the following aqueous solutions as a nonelectrolyte, weak electrolyte, or strong electrolyte: (b) HNO3
Classify each of the following aqueous solutions as a nonelectrolyte, weak electrolyte, or strong electrolyte: (c) NH4Cl
Classify each of the following aqueous solutions as a nonelectrolyte, weak electrolyte, or strong electrolyte: (d) CH3COCH3 (acetone) 
Classify each of the following aqueous solutions as a nonelectrolyte, weak electrolyte, or strong electrolyte: (e) CoSO4
Classify each of the following aqueous solutions as a nonelectrolyte, weak electrolyte, or strong electrolyte: (f) C12H22O11 (sucrose).
A solution containing an electrolytea. conducts electricity. b. does not conduct electricity. c. produces gas.d. is insoluble.
Which of the following is a soluble compound? Select all that apply. A. Ba(OH)2 B. CaCO3 C. LiOH D. Ca3(PO4)2
On the basis of the general solubility rules given in Table 4.1, predict which of the following substances are likely to be soluble in water.a. aluminum nitrate
On the basis of the general solubility rules given in Table 4.1, predict which of the following substances are likely to be soluble in water.b. magnesium chloride
On the basis of the general solubility rules given in Table 4.1, predict which of the following substances are likely to be soluble in water.c. rubidium sulfate
On the basis of the general solubility rules given in Table 4.1, predict which of the following substances are likely to be soluble in water.d. nickel(II) hydroxide
On the basis of the general solubility rules given in Table 4.1, predict which of the following substances are likely to be soluble in water.e. lead(II) sulfide
On the basis of the general solubility rules given in Table 4.1, predict which of the following substances are likely to be soluble in water.f. magnesium hydroxide 
Is Ba(ClO2)2 soluble?
On the basis of the general solubility rules given in Table 4.1, predict which of the following substances are likely to be soluble in water.g. iron(III) phosphate
On the basis of the general solubility rules given in Table 4.1, predict which of the following substances are likely to be soluble in water.a. zinc chloride
On the basis of the general solubility rules given in Table 4.1, predict which of the following substances are likely to be soluble in water.b. lead(II) nitrate
On the basis of the general solubility rules given in Table 4.1, predict which of the following substances are likely to be soluble in water.c. lead(II) sulfate
On the basis of the general solubility rules given in Table 4.1, predict which of the following substances are likely to be soluble in water.d. sodium iodide
Which compound is an electrolyte?a. C6H12O6b. C12H22O11c. CH3CH2OHd. CH3COOH 
a. What dissolved species are present in a solution of KCN? Express your answers as ion separated by a comma. b. What dissolved species are present in a solution of NaCIO4? Express your answers as ion separated by a comma.
Commercial cold packs and hot packs are available for treating athletic injuries. Both types contain a pouch of water and a dry chemical. When the pack is struck, the pouch of water breaks, dissolving the chemical, and the solution becomes either hot or cold. Many hot packs use magnesium sulfate, and many cold packs use ammonium nitrate. Write reactions to show how these strong electrolytes break apart when they dissolve in water.
You may want to reference (Pages 130 - 137)Section 4.3 while completing this problem.Which of these substances, when dissolved in water, is a strong electrolyte?(a) ammonia (b) hydrofluoric acid (c) folic acid(d) sodium nitrate (e) sucrose
Calculate the concentration of all ions present in the following solution of a strong electrolyte: 0.100 mole of Ca(NO3)2 in 100.0 mL of solution.
Calculate the concentration of all ions present in the following solution of a strong electrolyte: 2.5 moles of Na2SO4 in 1.25 L of solution.
Calculate the concentration of all ions present in the following solution of a strong electrolyte: 5.00 g of NH4Cl in 500.0 mL of solution.
Calculate the concentration of all ions present in the following solution of a strong electrolyte: 1.00 g K3PO4 in 250.0 mL of solution.
Calculate the concentration of all ions present in the following solution of a strong electrolyte: 0.0200 mole of sodium phosphate in 10.0 mL of solution.
Calculate the concentration of all ions present in the following solution of a strong electrolyte: 0.300 mole of barium nitrate in 600.0 mL of solution.
Calculate the concentration of all ions present in the following solution of a strong electrolyte: 1.00 g of potassium chloride in 0.500 L of solution.
Calculate the concentration of all ions present in the following solution of a strong electrolyte: 132 g of ammonium sulfate in 1.50 L of solution.
Which of the following solutions of strong electrolytes contains the largest number of moles of chloride ions: 100.0 mL of 0.30 M AlCl3, 50.0 mL of 0.60 M MgCl 2, or 200.0 mL of 0.40 M NaCl?
Which of the following solutions of strong electrolytes contains the largest number of ions: 100.0 mL of 0.100 M NaOH, 50.0 mL of 0.200 M BaCl2, or 75.0 mL of 0.150 M Na 3PO4?
Write the ions present in a solution of Na2CO3. Express your answers as chemical formulas seperated by a comma. 
4.34You may want to reference (Pages 131 - 137) Section 4.3 while completing this problem.State whether each of the following statements is true or false. Justify your answer in each case.(b) HF is a strong acid.
4.34You may want to reference (Pages 131 - 137) Section 4.3 while completing this problem.State whether each of the following statements is true or false. Justify your answer in each case.(c) Although sulfuric acid is a strong electrolyte, an aqueous solution of H2SO4 contains more HSO4- ions than SO42- ions.
Write the ions present in a solution of K3PO4. Express your answers as chemical formulas separated by a comma. Offset subscripts and charges on each ion.
Write the ions present in solution of Na2CO3Express your answers as chemical formulas separated by a comma. Identify all of the phases in your answers.
Classify each of the following as a strong electrolyte or non electrolyte. MgBr2, C12H22O11, Na2CO3, KOH
We have learned in this chapter that many ionic solids dissolve in water as strong electrolytes; that is, as separated ions in solution.Which statement is most correct about this process?(a) Water is a strong acid and therefore is good at dissolving ionic solids. (b) Water is good at solvating ions because the hydrogen and oxygen atoms in water molecules bear partial charges. (c) The hydrogen and oxygen bonds of water are easily broken by ionic solids.
Classify each of the following substances as a nonelectrolyte, weak electrolyte, or strong electrolyte in water.(a) H2SO3
Show how MgCl2 “breaks up” into its component ions upon dissolving in water by drawing molecular-level pictures.
Show how Al(NO3)3 “breaks up” into its component ions upon dissolving in water by drawing molecular-level pictures.
Show how NH4C2H3O2 (ammonium acetate) “breaks up” into its component ions upon dissolving in water by drawing molecular-level pictures.
Match each name below with the following microscopic pictures of that compound in aqueous solution.a. barium nitrate                    c. potassium carbonateb. sodium chloride                d. magnesium sulfateWhich picture best represents HNO3(aq)? Why aren’t any of the pictures a good representation of HC2H3O2(aq)?
4.37Classify each of the following substances as a nonelectrolyte, weak electrolyte, or strong electrolyte in water.(b) CH3CH2OH (ethanol)
Suppose 50.0 mL of 0.250 M CoCl2 solution is added to 25.0 mL of 0.350 M NiCl2 solution. Calculate the concentration, in moles per liter, of each of the ions present after mixing. Assume that the volumes are additive.
Explain why solutions of HBr in benzene (a nonpolar solvent) are nonconductive, while solutions in water (a polar solvent) are conductive.
Each of the following compounds is soluble in water. For which compounds do you expect the resulting aqueous solution to conduct electrical current?a. CsClb. CH3OHc. Ca(NO2)2d. C6H12O6
When the metallic element sodium combines with the nonmetallic element bromine, Br2(l), what is the chemical formula of the product?Is the product a solid, liquid, or gas at room temperature?
Classify each substance as a strong electrolyte, weak electrolyte, or nonelectrolyte:(d) Ammonia (NH3)
Classify each substance as a strong electrolyte, weak electrolyte, or nonelectrolyte: (a) Sodium permanganate (NaMnO4)
Classify each of the following as a strong electrolyte or nonelectrolyte.a. MgBr2b. C12H22O11c. Na2CO3d. KOH
Classify each substance as a strong electrolyte, weak electrolyte, or nonelectrolyte:(d) Calcium acetate [Ca(C2H3O2)2]
4.21You may want to reference (Pages 126 - 130) Section 4.2 while completing this problem.Using solubility guidelines, predict whether each of the following compounds is soluble or insoluble in water.(a) MgBr2 
A solution contains one or more of the following ions: Ag+, Ca2+, and Cu2+. When sodium chloride is added to the solution, no precipitate forms. When sodium sulfate is added to the solution, a white precipitate forms. The precipitate is filtered off and sodium carbonate is added to the remaining solution, producing a precipitate.Which ions were present in the original solution?
What are the cations and anions whose compounds are usually soluble? What are the exceptions?
You may want to reference (Pages 126 - 130)Section 4.2 while completing this problem.Which of the following compounds is insoluble in water?(a) (NH4)2S (b) CaCO3 (c) NaOH (d) Ag2SO4 (e) Pb(CH3COO)2
Is each compound soluble or insoluble in water?(a) NiS(b) Mg3(PO4)2(c) Li2CO3(d) NH4Cl
Specify what ions are present upon dissolving each of the following substances in water.MgI2
Specify what ions are present upon dissolving each of the following substances in water.K2CO3
On the basis of the general solubility rules given below, predict which of the following substances are likely to be soluble in water.a. aluminum nitrate                   e. lead(II) sulfideb. magnesium chloride             f. magnesium hydroxidec. rubidium sulfate                    g. iron(III) phosphated. nickel(II) hydroxide
On the basis of the general solubility rules given below, predict which of the following substances are likely to be soluble in water.a. zinc chloride                          e. cobalt(III) sulfideb. lead(II) nitrate                        f. chromium(III) hydroxidec. lead(II) sulfate                        g. magnesium carbonated. sodium iodide                       h. ammonium carbonate
Determine whether each of the following compounds is soluble or insoluble:a. AgNO3b. Pb(C2H3O2)2c. KNO3d. (NH4)2S
Write the chemical formula for the anion present in the aqueous solution of AgNO3.
Write the chemical formula for the cation present in the aqueous solution of Pb(C2H3O2)2.
Review the solubility rules. Give ionic compounds that are soluble. Give ionic compounds that are insoluble?
What dissolved species are present in a solution of KCN?
Solid ammonium carbonate dissolved in water produces what?A. NH3 and CO32- B. (NH4)2CO3 C. NH4+, CO32- D. NH3 E. None of the above
Of those below, which is most soluble in water?A. Ca3(PO4)2 B. AgCl C. Na2S D. PbI2 E. CuS
Which of the following statements is true?A. All soluble ionic compounds are weak electrolytes.B. Weak electrolytes dissociate completely in water.C. Aqueous solution of sucrose is a strong electrolyte.D. Electrolyte solutions conduct heat.E. NH3 is a weak electrolyte.
Determine if each compound shown is soluble or insoluble. AgNO3NaClZn(OH)2Hg2I2KNO3BaCl2KBrFeCl3BaSO4
What is the chemical equation for HCl dissolving into water and ionizing?
Some chemical compounds are listed in the first column of the table below. Each compound is soluble in water. Imagine that a few tenths of a mole of each compound is dissolved in a liter of water. The important chemical species that would be present in this solution are written in the second column of the table. Use the checkboxes to classify each compound. 
You have two hypothetical molecular compounds, AX and AY. AX is a strong electrolyte and AY is a weak electrolyte. The compounds undergo the following chemical reactions when added to water.AX(aq) + H2O(l) → AH2O+ (aq) + X-(aq)AY(aq) + H2O(l) → AH2O+ (aq) + Y-(aq)a. Explain how the relative amounts of AX(aq) and AY(aq) would compare if you had a beaker of water with AX and a beaker of water with AY.b. How would the relative amounts of X-(aq) and Y-(aq) in the two beakers compare? Be sure to explain your answer.
Sodium chloride, NaCl, is a strong electrolyte, as is hydroiodic acid, HI. Write the chemical equations for what happens when these substances are added to water.
Write the chemical equation(s), including state symbols, for what happens when each soluble ionic compound that you identified above is placed in water. Are these substances reacting with water when they are added to water?KCl                                    HClNH3                                   Ca(OH)    2CO2                                   PbSMgBr2                                HC2H3O2How would you classify the soluble ionic compounds: strong electrolyte, weak electrolyte, or nonelectrolyte? Explain your answer.
Which of the following compounds is soluble in water?A. PbCl2B. CoCO3C. Ni(OH)2D. K3PO4E. BaSO4
Sugar is a _____. A) weak electrolyte B) nonelectrolyte C) weak acid D) strong electrolyte E) strong acid
Which of the following is a weak electrolyte?(A) H3PO4(B) K2CO3(C) AgNO3(D) H2SO4(E) KOH
What of the following should be insoluble in water?A. NaNO3B. ZnBr2C. Cd(ClO3)2D. Ag2SO4E. Ba(OH)2
Classify these compounds as strong electrolytes, weak electrolytes, or nonelectrolytes.HBr, FeCl2, H2CO3
Identify each of the following substances as strong electrolyte, weak electrolyte, or nonelectrolyte:A) Ba(NO3)2,B) Ne,C) NH3,D) NaOH,
Ritalin is the trade name of a drug, methylphenidate, used to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in young adults. The chemical structure of methylphenidate is shown in the figure below.An electrolyte or a nonelectrolyte?
Assuming the concentrations of all of the aqueous solutions are 1.0 M, which of following is expected to be the strongest electrolyte?A. NaClB. K2SO3C. C6H6D. HFE. NH4Cl
Classify these compounds as soluble or insoluble.a. barium sulfate                                                                   f. sodium hydroxideb. magnesium sulfate                                                           g. magnesium hydroxidec. ammonium hydroxide                                                       h. copper (II) hydroxided. copper (II) sulfate                                                              i. barium hydroxidee. ammonium sulfate                                                            j. sodium sulfate
Which one of the following compounds is insoluble in water?a. BaSO4b. KNO3c. Na2SO4d. Li2CO3
Which one of the following compounds is soluble in water?a. Cu3(PO4)2b. Co(NO3)2c. CdSd. CaCO3
Which of the following is a weak electrolyte?A. HNO2B. CuSO4C. FeSO4 D. H2SO4E. CsOH
Specify what ions are present in solution upon dissolving each of the following substances in water.FeCl2
Predict whether the following compounds are soluble or insoluble in water. CoCI2, Agl, CuCO3, AgNO3, BaSO4, KNO3
Classify these compounds as strong electrolytes, weak electrolytes, or nonelectrolytes.H2SO4, (NH4)2S, HClO
Calcium chloride is a strong electrolyte and is used to “salt” streets in the winter to melt ice and snow. Write a reaction to show how this substance breaks apart when it dissolves in water.
Classify these compounds as strong electrolytes, weak electrolytes, or nonelectrolytes. HBr, H2CO3, FeCI2
What dissolved species are present in a solution of NaClO4?
K2SO4 is a strong electrolyte. Determine the concentration of each of the individual ions in a 0.650 M K 2SO4 solution. [K+] =                    M[SO42-] =                       M
Predict whether the following compounds are soluble or insoluble in water:CuBr2 AgBr BaSO4 K2SO4 FeCO3Pb(NO3)2
When potassium chromate, K2CrO4, dissolves in water, what ions are produced?
Both NH3 and C12H22O11 are soluble molecular compounds, yet they behave differently in aqueous solution. Briefly explain why one is a weak electrolyte and the other is a nonelectrolyte.
Hydrochloric acid, HCl, is a molecular compound that is a strong electrolyte. Write the chemical reaction of HCl with water.
Compare the ammonia reaction with that of hydrochloric acid. Why are both of these substances considered electrolytes?