Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular StructureWorksheetSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds
Sections
Chemical Bonds
Lattice Energy
Lattice Energy Application
Born Haber Cycle
Dipole Moment
Lewis Dot Structure
Octet Rule
Formal Charge
Resonance Structures
Additional Practice
Bond Energy

In the Born-Haber Cycle, ionic solids are created through the ionization of elements. 

The Born-Haber Process

Under the Born-Haber Cycle, the formation of an ionic solid is the result of a metal and a gaseous nonmetal combining together. 

Example #1: The Born-Haber cycle looks mainly at the formation of an ionic compound from gaseous ions. 

In order for the elements to combine they each must be ionized. Their opposing charges cause them to combine. 

Example #2: Using the Born-Haber Cycle, demonstrate the formation of cesium chloride, CsCl, and calculate its heat of formation. 

Additional Problems
Use the data given below to construct a Born-Haber cycle to determine the lattice energy of KBr.       ΔH°(kJ) K(s) → K(g)                                             89 K(g) → K+(g) + e-                                   419 ½ Br2(l) → Br(g)                                      96 Br(g) + e- → Br-(g)                                 -325 K(s) + ½ Br2(g) → KBr(s)                       -394   A) -885 kJ B) -673 kJ C) +367 kJ D) -464 kJ E) +246 kJ
When setting up the steps of the Born-Haber cycle for K 2O, how many ionization energies (IE) and how many electron affinities (EA) do you need, i.e., non-, first and second?   A) 2 IE, 0 EA B) 2 IE, 1 EA C) 1 IE, 2 EA D) 1 IE, 1 EA E) 0 IE, 2 EA
Using a Born-Haber cycle, calculate the lattice energy for lithium fluoride, LiF(s), given the following data: Sublimation energy for Li(s) = 166 kJ ⁄ mol first ionization energy for Li(g) = 520 kJ ⁄ mol bond energy for F2(g) = 158 kJ ⁄ mol–1 electron affinity for F(g) = –328 kJ ⁄ mol–1 enthalpy of formation of LiF(s) = –617 kJ ⁄ mol a) +101 kJ ⁄ mol b) +180 kJ ⁄ mol c) –329 kJ ⁄ mol d) –1054 kJ ⁄ mol e) –1133 kJ ⁄ mol
Please refer to the hypothetical Born-Haber cycle below for M(s) + X(s) → MX(s), where M and X are both elements in their standard states.  The ionization energy of M(s) is a) 351 kJ      b. 130 kJ     c. 481 kJ      d. 221 kJ      e. 702 kJ  
Please refer to the hypothetical Born-Haber cycle below for M(s) + X(s) → MX(s), where M and X are both elements in their standard states. The atomization energy of M(s) is a) 351 kJ      b. 130 kJ      c. 481 kJ      d. 221 kJ     e. 702 kJ
Please refer to the hypothetical Born-Haber cycle below for M(s) + X(s) → MX(s), where M and X are both elements in their standard states.  The enthalpy of formation (ΔH f) for MX(s) is: a. 938 kJ     b. 130 kJ     c. 808 kJ     d. 221 kJ     e. -221 kJ
Please refer to the hypothetical Born-Haber cycle below for M(s) + X(s) → MX(s), where M and X are both elements in their standard states.  The lattice enthalpy (ΔHL) for MX(s) is: a. 938 kJ     b. 130 kJ     c. - 808 kJ     d. 221 kJ     e. -221 kJ
In the Born-Haber cycle for Mg(s) + Cl 2(g)      →       MgCl 2(s), which step(s) is (are) exothermic for the formation of crystalline solid? (the following may not be balanced equations, but describe reaction processes.) (1) Mg(g) + 2Cl(g)      →       Mg 2+(g) + 2Cl(g) (2) Mg2+(g) + 2Cl(g)      →       Mg2+(g) + 2Cl - (g) (3) Mg(s) + Cl2(g)      →       Mg(g) + Cl 2(g) (4) Mg(s) + Cl2(g)      →       Mg(g) + 2Cl(g) (5) Mg2+(g) + 2Cl - (g)      →       MgCl 2(g) a. (1) and (3) b. (1), (3), and (4) c. (5) d. (2) and (5) e. (1), (2), and (5)
The diagram below is the Born-Haber cycle for the formation of crystalline potassium fluoride KF. Which energy change (by number) corresponds to the lattice energy of KF? a. 5 b. 2 c. 4 d. 1 e. 6
List the individual steps used in constructing a Born - Haber cycle for the formation of BaI2 from the elements. Which of the steps would you expect to be exothermic?Write chemical equation for first step of a Born - Haber cycle.
List the individual steps used in constructing a Born - Haber cycle for the formation of BaI2 from the elements. Which of the steps would you expect to be exothermic?Write chemical equation for third step of a Born - Haber cycle.
List the individual steps used in constructing a Born - Haber cycle for the formation of BaI2 from the elements. Which of the steps would you expect to be exothermic?Write chemical equation for fourth step of a Born - Haber cycle.
List the individual steps used in constructing a Born - Haber cycle for the formation of BaI2 from the elements. Which of the steps would you expect to be exothermic?Write chemical equation for fifth step of a Born - Haber cycle.
Why is the formation of solid sodium chloride from solid sodium and gaseous chlorine exothermic, even though it takes more energy to form the Na+ ion than the amount of energy released upon formation of Cl- ?
What is the Born-Haber cycle? List each of the steps in the cycle and show how the cycle is used to calculate lattice energy.
Use the Born-Haber cycle to calculate the lattice energy of NaCl.1st Ionization Energy for Na = 495.9 kJ/mol2nd Ionization Energy for Na = 4,560 kJ/molElectron Affinity for Na = 53 kJ/molElectron Affinity for Cl = 349 kJ/molEnergy to dissociate 1/2 mol of Cl2 into Cl atoms = 121.4 kJΔHsublimation (Na) = 108 kJ/molΔHf° (NaCl) = -411 kJ/mol
Calculate lattice energy. The lattice energy of an ionic compound is the energy change when one mole of ionic solid is separated into its gaseous ions. Given the data below, find lattice energy for AlBr3, which is the ΔH° for the following reaction:
Use the Born-Haber cycle to calculate the lattice energy of KCl(s) given the following data:ΔH(sublimation) K = 79.2 kJ/molI1 (K) = 418.7 kJ/molBond energy (Cl-Cl) = 242.8 kJ/molEA (Cl) = 348 kJ/molΔH°f (KCl(s)) = -435.7 kJ/mola. -165 kJ/molb. 288 kJ/molc. 629 kJ/mold. -707 kJ/mole. -828 kJ/mol
The reaction of a metal, M, with a halogen, X2, proceeds by an exothermic reaction as indicated by this equation: M(s) + X2(g) ⟶ MX2(s). For each of the following, indicate which option will make the reaction more exothermic. Explain your answers.(a) a large radius vs. a small radius for M+2
The reaction of a metal, M, with a halogen, X2, proceeds by an exothermic reaction as indicated by this equation: M(s) + X2(g) ⟶ MX2(s). For each of the following, indicate which option will make the reaction more exothermic. Explain your answers.(b) a high ionization energy vs. a low ionization energy for M
The reaction of a metal, M, with a halogen, X2, proceeds by an exothermic reaction as indicated by this equation: M(s) + X2(g) ⟶ MX2(s). For each of the following, indicate which option will make the reaction more exothermic. Explain your answers.(c) an increasing bond energy for the halogen
The reaction of a metal, M, with a halogen, X2, proceeds by an exothermic reaction as indicated by this equation: M(s) + X2(g) ⟶ MX2(s). For each of the following, indicate which option will make the reaction more exothermic. Explain your answers.(d) a decreasing electron affinity for the halogen
The reaction of a metal, M, with a halogen, X2, proceeds by an exothermic reaction as indicated by this equation: M(s) + X2(g) ⟶ MX2(s). For each of the following, indicate which option will make the reaction more exothermic. Explain your answers.(e) an increasing size of the anion formed by the halogen
List the individual steps used in constructing a Born-Haber cycle for the formation of BaI2 from the elements. Which of the steps would you expect to be exothermic?
Consider an ionic compound, MX, composed of generic metal M and generic, gaseous halogen X. The enthalpy of formation of MX is ΔH°f = -453 kJ/mol. The enthalpy of sublimation of M is ΔHsub = 127 kJ/mol. The ionization energy of M is IE = 431 kJ/mol. The electron affinity of X is ΔHEA = -301 kJ/mol. The bond energy of X2 is BE = 171 kJ/mol. Determine the lattice energy of MX.
Lattice energies can also be calculated for covalent network solids using a Born-Haber cycle, and the network solid silicon dioxide has one of the highest ΔH°lattice values. Silicon dioxide is found in pure crystalline form as transparent rock quartz. Much harder than glass, this material was once prized for making lenses for optical devices and expensive spectacles. Use Appendix B and the following data to calculate ΔH°lattice of SiO2:Si(s) ⟶Si(g)                               ΔH° =  454 kJSi(g) ⟶Si4+(g) + 4e−                 ΔH° = 9949 kJO2(g) ⟶2O(g)                           ΔH° =   498 kJO(g) + 2e− ⟶O2−(g)                  ΔH° =   737 kJ
Use the following data for potassium chloride to estimate ΔE for the reaction:        K(s) + 1/2Cl2(g) → KCl(s)      ΔE = ?Lattice energy                                           -690. kJ/molIonization energy for K                                 419 kJ/molElectron affinity of Cl                                  -349 kJ/molBond energy of Cl 2                                      239 kJ/molEnergy of sublimation for K                          90. kJ/mol
Use the following data for magnesium fluoride to estimate ΔE for the reaction:            Mg(s) + F 2 (g) → MgF2 (s)                    ΔE = ?Lattice energy                                            -2913 kJ/molFirst ionization energy of Mg                      735 kJ/molSecond ionization energy of Mg               1445 kJ/molElectron affinity of F                                   -328 kJ/molBond energy of F2                                       154 kJ/molEnergy of sublimation for Mg                     150. kJ/mol
Consider the following:Li(s) + 1/2I2 (s) → LiI(s)      ΔE = -272 kJ/molLiI(s) has a lattice energy of -753 kJ/mol. The ionization energy of Li(g) is 520. kJ/mol, the bond energy of I2(g) is 151kJ/ mol, and the electron affinity of I(g) is -295 kJ/mol. Use these data to determine the energy of sublimation of Li(s).
Use the following data (in kJ/mol) to estimate ΔE for the reaction S  -(g) + e- → S2-(g). Include an estimate of uncertainty. ΔEsub is the energy of sublimation.2 Na(s) + S(s) → Na 2S(s)      ΔE = -365 kJ/mol  2 K(s) + S(s) → K 2S(s)         ΔE = -381 kJ/mol2 Rb(s) + S(s) → Rb 2S(s)      ΔE = -361 kJ/mol2 Cs (s) + S(s) → Cs 2S(s)     ΔE = -360 kJ/mol                 S(s) → S(g)           ΔE = 277 kJ/mol          S(g) + e - → S-(g)         ΔE = -200 kJ/molAssume that all values are known to +1 kJ/mol.
The standard heat of formation of PI3 (s) is -24.7 kJ/mol and the PI bond energy in this molecule is 184 kJ/mol. The standard heat of formation of P(g) is 334 kJ/mol and that of I2 (g) is 62 kJ/mol. The I2 bond energy is 151 kJ/mol.Calculate the heat of sublimation of PI3 [PI3(s) → P3(g)].
Born-Haber cycles were used to obtain the first reliable values for electron affinity by considering the EA value as the unknown and using a theoretically calculated value for the lattice energy. Use a Born-Haber cycle for KF and the following values to calculate a value for the electron affinity of fluorine:K(s) ⟶K(g)                                               ΔH° =       90 kJK(g) ⟶K+(g) + e−                                     ΔH° =     419 kJF2(g) ⟶2F(g)                                           ΔH° =     159 kJK(s) + 1/2F2(g) ⟶KF(s)                            ΔH° =    −569 kJK+(g) + F−(g) ⟶KF(s)                              ΔH° =   −821 kJ
Use the following data to estimate ΔE for the reaction:Ba (s) + Br2 (g) → BaBr2 (s)                 ΔE = ?Lattice energy                                     -1985 kJ/molFirst ionization energy of Ba                  503 kJ/molSecond ionization energy of Ba             965 kJ/molElectron affinity of Br                             -325 kJ/molBond energy of Br2                                 193 kJ/molEnthalpy of sublimation of Ba                 178 kJ/mol
Construct a Born-Haber cycle for the formation of the hypothetical compound NaCl2, where the sodium ion has a 2+ charge (the 2nd ionization energy for sodium is given in Table 7.2 in the textbook).If we were to estimate the lattice energy of NaCl2 to be roughly equal to that of MgCl2 (2326 kJ/mol from Table 8.2 in the textbook), what value would you obtain for the standard enthalpy of formation, ΔH˚f, of NaCl2?
Use bond energies (Table 3‑3), values of electron affinities (Table 2-7), and the ionization energy of hydrogen (1312 kJ/mol) to estimate ΔE for each of the following reactions.a. HF (g) → H+ (g) + F- (g)       
Use bond energies (Table 3‑3), values of electron affinities (Table 2-7), and the ionization energy of hydrogen (1312 kJ/mol) to estimate ΔE for each of the following reactions.b. HCl (g) → H+ (g) + Cl - (g)       
Use bond energies (Table 3‑3), values of electron affinities (Table 2-7), and the ionization energy of hydrogen (1312 kJ/mol) to estimate ΔE for each of the following reactions.c. HI (g) → H+ (g) + I - (g)       
Use bond energies (Table 3‑3), values of electron affinities (Table 2-7), and the ionization energy of hydrogen (1312 kJ/mol) to estimate ΔE for each of the following reactions.d. H2O (g) → H+ (g) + OH - (g)(Electron affinity of OH (g) = -180. kJ/mol.)       
List the individual steps used in constructing a Born - Haber cycle for the formation of BaI2 from the elements. Which of the steps would you expect to be exothermic?Write the chemical equation for the second step of a Born - Haber cycle.
Construct a Born-Haber cycle for the formation of the hypothetical compound NaCl2, where the sodium ion has a 2+ charge (the 2nd ionization energy for sodium is given in Table 7.2 in the textbook).How large would the lattice energy need to be for the formation of NaCl2 to be exothermic?
Determining lattice energy from Born-Haber cycle data requires the use of _____.a. the octet ruleb. Coulomb's lawc. Periodic lawd. Hess's law
The following reaction can be written as the sum of two reactions, one of which relates to ionization energy and one of which relates to electron affinity:1. What is the reaction that corresponds to the first ionization energy of potassium, K?2. What is the reaction that corresponds to the electron affinity of bromine, Br?
Which one of the following equations correctly represents the process involved in the second electron affinity of As?A. As(g) + e– → As– (g)     B. As– (g) + e– → As2– (g)     C. As(g) → As+ (g) + e– D. As– (g) → As(g) + e–     E. As2– (g) + e – → As3– (g)
The following reaction can be written as the sum of two reactions, one of which relates to ionization energy and one of which relates to electron affinity:a. What is the reaction that corresponds to the first ionization energy of sodium, Na?b. What is the reaction that corresponds to the electron affinity of chlorine, Cl?
Using data from Appendix C, Figure 7.9, and Figure 7.11 (all in the textbook) and the value of the second ionization energy for Ca, 1145, calculate the lattice energy of CaCl2.
Use the data given below to construct a Born-Haber cycle to determine the electron affinity of Br.
Use the data given below to construct a Born-Haber cycle to determine the heat of formation of KCl.H °(kJ)K(g) → K+(g) + e-418Cl2(g) → 2 Cl(g)244Cl(g) + e- → Cl-(g)-349KCl(s) → K+(g) + Cl-(g)717
What is the enthalpy of sublimation for K, in kJ/mol?Given:Lattice energy of KCl = 699 kJ/molFirst ionization energy of K = 418.7 kJ/molElectron affinity of Cl = 349 kJ/molBond energy of Cl-Cl = 242.7 kJ/molEnthalpy of formation of KCl = -435.87 kJ/mol
Calculate the lattice energy of calcium chloride given that the heat of sublimation of Ca is 121 kJ/mol and ΔH°f(CaCl2) = -795kJ/mol.
The standard heat of formation of CaBr2 is -675 kJ/mol. The first ionization energy of Ca is 590 kJ/mol and its second ionization energy is 1145 kJ/mol. The heat of sublimation of Ca is 178 kJ/mol. The bond energy of Br2 is 193 kJ/mol, the heat of vaporization of Br2 (l) is 31 kJ/mol, and the electron affinity of Br is -325 kJ/mol.Calculate the lattice energy of CaBr2.