In an ecosystem:
• Energy flow: unidirectional
- energy is transferred from producers to consumers with a loss in energy (as heat) for each step
Which of the following statements about energy flow are true? Select the four statements that are true.
a. Energy spent on cellular respiration is available to higher trophic levels.
b. Animals that produce their own body heat and maintain a high body temperature are likely to be less efficient at converting food into biomass than are animals that do not regulate their body temperature.
c. Energy used in the production of offspring is available to higher trophic levels.
d. Energy contained in feces is available to higher trophic levels.
e. Autotrophs typically capture about 90% of the available energy from the sun through photosynthesis.
f. If the lowest trophic level of an ecosystem--the primary producers--contains 1,200 grams of biomass per square meter, it is reasonable to expect the secondary consumer level to contain about 12 grams of biomass per square meter.
g. In a trophic pyramid, biomass represents chemical energy.
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