In the following pedigre, what does the double line between individuals 4 and 5 of generation IV indicate?A. identical twinsB. dizygotic twins C. probandD. consanguinity
Examine the pedigree below:a) What is the inheritance pattern of this disorder? Justify your answer.b) What is the probability that BOTH of the daughter IV-1 and IV-4 are carriers of the disorder?c) What is the probability that BOTH of the daughters IV-5 and IV-8 are carriers of the disorder?
A husband and wife have normal vision, although both of their fathers are red-green color-blind, an inherited X-linked recessive condition.A. Give the genotypes of the husband and wife.B. What is the probability that their first child will be:B.1. a normal son?B.2. A normal daughter?B.3. A color-blind son?B.4. A color-blind daughter?
John and Sue are expecting a child, but are concerned about a rare autosomal recessive disease that is present in both of their families. In the pedigree below, John is represented as individual III-11 and Sue is represented as individual III-12. John's sister, III-10, and Sue's brother, III-13, both do not show evidence of the disease, but John's paternal grandmother and Sue's maternal grandfather both had the disease.What is the probability that John is a carrier?What is the probability that both John and Sue are carriers?
Galactosemia is a disorder that results from the inheritance of two recessive alleles (ex. aa genotype). Indicate the possible genotypes of the individuals in the pedigree chart below by placing AA, Aa, or aa below the squares and circles.
Hemopphilia is an X-linked recessive disorder in humans. If a heterozygous woman has children with an unaffected man, what are the odds of the following combinations of children?A. An affected son.B. Four unaffected offspring in a row.C. An unaffected daughter or son.D. Three out of five offspring that are affected
Ann's family has a history of cystic fibrosis, a recessive genetic disease. In the pedigree below, family members who are afflicted with the disease are shown in red. Members who are unafflicted may or may not be carriers. Which of the given family members can be identified definitively as unafflicted carriers of cystic fibrosis?
Look at the pedigree below. What is the genotype of the parents of individuals 1, 2, and 3?A. cannot be determinedB. ffC. FfD. FF
Which of the choices below is a characteristic of the pedigree of a dominant trait?A. From matings in which one parent is affected, approximately half of the offspring are affected.B. The trait will appear in offspring of unaffected parents.C. The trait often will skip a generation.D. All of these choices are correct.
The given pedigree below is of a genetic condition which gives affected individuals a star-shaped mark on their neck. The shaded individuals all carry this mark.A. Is this an example of a dominant or recessive pedigree? How do you know?B. What is the genotype of I1 and I2?C. What is the chance that the offspring of III-2 and III-5 will be affected? What about if III-3 and III-5 mated?
Based on the pedigree shown below, what is the genotype of II-1?A. AAB. aaC. AaD. AA or AaE. Aa or aaF. AA or aaG. AA or Aa or aa
Based on the pedigree shown below, what is the genotype of IV-3?A. AAB. aaC. AaD. AA or AaE. Aa or aaF. AA or aaG. AA or Aa or aa
If a man with full color vision has a child with a woman with a full color vision whose father was red-green color blind (cb), what is the probability that their first child is colorblind?A. 1/2B. 1/3C. 1/4D. 1/6E. 1/8
The mutant strain maroon-like has an X-linked mutant allele (Xm) that results in deep maroon-colored eyes in homozygous females and hemizygous males. To prove to a skeptical friend that this trait is in fact X-linked, you set up a reciprocal cross against the wild type. What are the expected genotypic and phenotypic frequencies of each half of this crossing experiment?
Retinitis pigmentosum (RP) is a rare inherited condition that eventually results in the loss of night vision. The pedigrees below describe three families with a history of RP.a. Explain from the pedigrees of Families A, B, and C how RP is inherited. Be sure you can account for all individuals.
Red-green color blindnessis an X-linked recessive trait in humans. Polydactyly (extra fingers and toes) is an autosomal dominant trait. Martha has normal fingers and toes and normal color vision. Her mother is normal in all respects, but herfather is color blind and polydactylous. Bill is color blind and polydactylous.If Bill and Martha marry, what proportions of children with specific phenotypes would they be expected to produce? The answers only include the proportions of some of the possible phenotypes; other phenotypes are also expected to occur but are not included.A. 1/4 color-blind girls with normal fingers, 1/4 boys with normal vision and polydactylyB. 1/4 girls with normal vision and polydactyly, 1/8 boys with normal vision and polydactylyC. 1/8 color-blind girls with normal fingers, 1/4 boys with normal vision and polydactylyD. 1/8 color-blind girls with polydactly, 1/8 boys with normal vision and normal fingers
The enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is inherited as a recessive gene on the X-chromosome in humans. Below is a pedigree of a family affected by G6PD. II-2 has a child with a man that is not affected by G6PD deficiency. She is pregnant with their first child. Genetic tests that her child is a boy. What is the probability that her male child will have G6PD deficiency?A. 0B. 1/4C. 1/2D. 3/4E. 1
Indicate the genotypes of the individuals in the pedigree chart below by placing AA, Aa, or aa below the squares and circles.
Look at the pedigree. If individual 3 marries a carrier for cystic fibrosis, what would be the chance of cystic fibrosis in their children?A. 75% carrier, 25% cystic fibrosisB. 25% normal, 50% carrier, 25% cystic fibrosisC. 75% cystic fibrosis, 25% carrierD. 50% carrier, 50% cystic fibrosis
What is the function of a gene?
Assume that this pedigree reflects the inheritance of an autosomal recessive disease allele. Use 'a' for the recessive allele and 'A' for the corresponding dominant wild type, normal allele. Neither of the two parents has the disease so they were surprised when one of their children (II-4) showed the disease symptom. Child II.5 is yet to be born, neither the sex nor the disease condition of the future child is known.a) Assign genotypes to all individuals in the pedigree. Use A- for individuals that you know lack the disease that might be either heterozygous or homozygous dominant.b) You know that individuals II-1, II-3, and II-4 lack the disease but that they may either be homozygotes or heterozygotes. Given just these two possibilities, what is the chance that these 3 individuals are homozygous dominant?c) What is the chance that individuals II-1, II-3, and II-4 are heterozygous carriers?d) For indicidual II-5, about which we know nothing, what is the chance of exhibiting the disease? Being homozygous dominant (disease allele free)? Being heterozygous carrier?
If two parents who are heterozygous for eye color mate, what is the probability their first two children will have blue eyes (assume they do not have identical twins)? NOTE: In humans, the brown eye color allele (B) is dominant to the allele for blue eye color (b).A. 1/1B. 1/2C. 1/4D. 1/16
What mode of inheritance is seen in the pedigree below?A. Autosomal dominantB. X-linked dominantC. X-linked recessiveD. Mitochondrial linkedE. Y-linked
Use the pedigree in this picture to explain if it represents a recessive or dominant condition and give the possible phenotypes representing your answer.
In the following human pedigree, how would you predict the trais to be passed on?A. autosomal dominantB. autosomal recessiveC. X-linked recessiveD. X-linked dominantE. not enough information to predict
How many female who have the disease in this pedigree?A. 1B. 2C. 3D. 4E. 5F. 6G. 7
The following pedigree shows _____ type of inheritance.A. dominantB. both dominant and recessiveC. not enough informationD. recessive
If a person has two normal copies of the hemoglobin allele, which statements are true? Select all that apply.A. The person is heterozygous at the hemglobin locus.B. The person is susceptible to malaria.C. The person is protected from malaria.D. The person is homozygous at the hemoglobin locus.
Assume that the disorder shown in the pedigree below is arare disease that results from a defect in mitochondrial DNA. If individual III-8 has a daughter, determine the probability that the daughter will inherit the muscle disorder from her affected parent. Answer as a decimal.
A genetic disorder affected a family as shown in the pedigree below. Affected individuals are indicated by a closed square (male) or circle (female). What is the most likely mode of inheritance that explains the pattern observed in this pedigree?A. X-linked recessiveB. autosomal recessiveC. autosomal dominant
This hypothetical pedigree for a disease in humans illustrated inheritance that is:A. autosomal dominantB. carried on the Y chromosomeC. sex-linked dominantD. autosomal recessive
Look at the pedigree shown. What is the most likely pattern of inheritance for this trait?A. X-linked dominantB. X-linked recessiveC. Autosomal dominantD. Autosomal recessive.
Consider the following pedigree of a rare autosomal recessive disease. Assume all people marrying into the pedigree do not carry the abnormal allele.a) If individuals A and B have a child, what is the probability that the child will have the disease?b) If the first child of C * D has the disease, what is the probability that their second child will have teh disease?
Look at the pedigree below. Let's say that individual 2 has achild with a man who does not have the disease and is not a carrier (FF). What are the results of their cross? Do a Punnet Square.A. 50% Ff, 50% F?B. 50% FF, 50% F?C. 50% FF, 50% FfD. We cannot determine this because we don't know the genotype of individual 2.
Complete the Punnet square and answer the questions below given only the following:John's parents are Donna, a carrier for Hemophilia A, and Tony who does not have Hemophilia A.What is the probability the John would:A. have Hemophilia A?B. not have Hemophilia A?
A man has extra digits (six fingers on each hand and six toes on each foot). His wife and their daughter have a normal number of digits. Having extra digits is a dominant trait. The couple's second child has extra digits. What is the probability that their next (third) child will have extra digits?A. 1/16B. 1/8C. 3/4D. 9/16E. 1/2
What would be Mom's genotype and phenotype forcolor blindedness, an X-linked recessive trait?A. Mom would have the genotype XBXB and would be color-blind.B. Mom would have the genotype XBXB and would not be color-blind.C. Mom would have the genotype XBXb and would not be color-blind.D. Mom would have the genotype XBXb and would be color-blind.
Which of the following is the clearest indication in a pedigree that a trait is dominant?A. A father passing on a trait to his daughterB. Two affected parents having an unaffected childC. Two unaffected parents having an affected childD. All the children of affected parents are affected
The hemophilia disease is caused by an X-linked recessive gene (gene H). The pedigree of a family with history of hemophilia disease is shown below. Which of the following is the genotype of II-1?A. XhXhB. XHX?C. XHXHD. XHXhE. XHYF. XhY
Joshua, age 18, is color blind. His mother and father have normal vision, but his mother's father (Joshua's maternal grandfather) is color blind. All Joshua's other grandparents have normal color vision. Joshua has three sisters - Nikki (age 20), Shaneekwa (age 15), and Laticia (age 27), all with normal color vision. Joshua's oldest sister, Latecia, is married to a man with normal color vision; they have two children: a 9-year old color blind boy and a 4-year old girl with normal color vision.Using correct symbol, annotation, and rules for pedigree construction, draw a pedigree of Joshua's family.
Cystic fibrosis is an autosomal recessive disorder that affects lung function in humans. If a couple, who are both unaffected, have an affected child, what is the probability that their next child will be an affected girl?A. 1/16B. 1/2C. 1/4D. 1/8
Huntington's disease, which causes degeneration of neurons, runs in Maria's family. Huntington's is a heritable autosomal dominant genetic disease. Family members that have the disease include Maria's paternal grandmother and Maria's paternal uncles. Maria's paternal grandfather does not have the disease.Because symptoms of Huntington's disease do not appear until later in life, genetic testing is necessary to determine whether a younger individual possesses the allele for the disease. These tests determined that Maria's father does not carry the allele for Huntington's disease.Maria's maternal uncle suggested that Maria create a pedigree to track the disease in her family. Use the symbols provided to complete the pedigree.
Is the 12th chromosome that you received at conception from your mother the same as your great grandmother's 12th chromosome? Use your knowledge from this chapter to answer this question.
Alpers' disease is a mitochondrially inherited disease with symptoms that include seizures, dementia, blindness, liver dysfunction, and cerebral degeneration. The pedigree below shows the presence of Alpers' disease in three generations. Individual 4had one daughter and two sons, and individual 6 had two daughters and one son.Which of the individuals indicated below are affected by Alpers' disease? Place the correct symbols on the pedigree showing affected and unaffected individuals.
Mitochondrial DNA is inherited maternally. How many of the members of the pedigree (given below) have the same mitochondrial DNA as the shaded individual? A. 7B. 5C. 4D. 9E. 10F. 12
Given the information about mitochondrial inheritance as an example of extrachromosomal inheritance, answer the questions that follow.- Mitochondria contain their own DNA- The female gamete (egg) contains cytoplasm and mitochondria- The male gamete (sperm) has no cytoplasm or mitochondria, and is streamlined to a nucleus and flagellum-like structure for motility- Thus, mitochondrial inheritance of daughters and sons must be traced back through the matrilineal line (mothers only)The pedigree in the figure below shows a family in which an inherited disease called Leber's opticatrophy is segregating. This condition causes blindness in adulthood. Studies have recently shown that the mutant gene causing Leber's optic atrophy is located in the mitochondrial genome.Assuming II-4 marries a normal person, what proportion of his offspring should inherit Leber's optic atrophy?A. 100%B. 50%C. 25%D. 0%
Suppose that Jess has mycotonic dystrophy and shows traits such as uncontrolled muscle activity. Jess's mother, Rose, is dystrophic, but her father is normal. Jess is married to Dave, and Dave is normal. Jess and Dave have a daughter, Lisa, and two sons, Phil and Erik. Lisa and Phil are normal, but Erik is dystrophic. Jess's sister, Jill is normal. Jill's husband and their only child are also normal. Jess's brother, Pete is dystrophic, and has three children with Mary, who is normal. Pete and Mary have two daughters, Judy and Pat, as well as a son, Carl. Judy is normal, but Pat and Carl are dystrophic.Label six of the pedigree symbols with the corresponding names of the individuals in Jess' family.
Individuals III-3 and III-3 are expecting their first child when they became aware that they both havea family history of this recessive condition. As counselor, you can calculate the probability that they are carriers and that their child will be affected with the condition.What is the probability that III-3 is a carrier (Rr)?
What would be the genotype of the circled individual assuming the most likely inheritance pattern in the pedigree above.A. XbYB. XBYC. BBD. XBXBE. XbXbF. BbG. XBXbH. bb
Hemophilia C is an autosomal recessive disorder. Complete the Punnet square and answer the questions below, given only the following:Jenny and Mike, who are both carriers for Hemophilia C, are expecting a son, Sam.a. What is the probability that Sam would have Hemophilia C?b. What is the probability that Sam would be a carrier for Hemophilia C?If a genetic test confirmed Sam did not have Hemophilia C, what is the probability he would c. be a carrier for Hemophilia C?
The pedigree shown below is typical of :A. An autosomal dominant mutation.B. An autosomal recessive mutationC. An X-linked mutationD. A mitochondrial mutationE. None of the answers listed above are correct.
Five generations back, you have learned that your great great grandmother had a rare autosomal recessive disease that is manifested by the strange condition in which the eating of celery leads to immediate, violent vomiting (chronic susceptibility; CCS). None of the individuals leading to you have had CCS, but it is not known if any of them were carriers. Draw a pedigree and calculate the probability that you are a carrier of the recessive CCS allele.
If a male with an X-linked recessive disease mates with a female who is a carrier for the disease, what percentage of their male and female offsprings will be affected?
A woman with an X-linked disorder has two sons and two daughters with her unaffected husband. Their fist son, who is also affected by the disease, has a normal son and an affected daughter. Draw the pedigree for this family. Is this disorder X-linked dominant or X-linked recessive? Show your work.
Briefly define the terms "linkage map", "physical map" and "karyotypic map". What techniques could be used to allow you to determine the position on a polymorphic DNA character to each of these maps?