Give the function of each of the following: (a) coenzyme (b) allosteric site.
Describe the major differences between fermentation, aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration? Which has the potential to yield the most energy?
Yeasts and many bacteria are facultative anaerobes that is, they make ATP by fermentation in the absence of oxygen, but if oxsygen is present, they can undergo aerobic respiration. Why would it be advantageous for them to be able to make ATP by aerobic respiration? Hint: Compare the amount of ATP produced in each process.
Compare and contrast anaerobic respiration and fermentation. How are they similar and how do they differ?
What is the key metabolic difference between anaerobic respiration and fermentation?
What is the difference between a strict anacrobe and a facultative anaerobe?
What is the difference between the terms; anaerobic bs aerobic.
What do aerobic cellular respiration and fermentation have in common?
During what conditions do organisms switch from aerobic respiration to fermentation?
What purpose does calcium sulfate serve in the Winogradsky column?
Yeast can grow both aerobically and anaerobically on glucose. Explain why the rate of glucose consumption decreases when yeast cells that have been maintained under anaerobic conditions are exposed to oxygen.
Fermentation, an anaerobic respiration, is characterized by the following electron acceptor(s):A. organic compoundsB. oxygenC. NAD+D. NADP+E. More than one of the above are correctF. None of the above are correct
Which of the products below are potential fermentation products?A. EthanolB. Lactate or lactic acidC. HydrogenD. A and BE. A, B, and CF. none of the above
Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding fermentation?A. It can be used as an alternative to photosynthesis.B. It results in the partial oxidation of C6H12O6.C. It can only be done by prokaryotes.D. It requires oxygen.E. It releases more energy from C6H12O6 than cellular respiration.
Fermentation of sugars by yeast results in the formation of which of the following molecule(s)?A. OxygenB. Lactic AcidC. GlucoseD. ATPE. Acetyl CoAF. NADPHG. EthanolH. Carbon dioxide
One function of both alcohol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation is toA. reduce NAD+ to NADHB. reduce FAD+ to FADH2C. oxidize NADH to NAD+D. reduce FADH2 to FAD+E. do none of the above
At first glance, fermentation of pyruvate to lactate might appear to be an optional add-on reaction to glycolysis. After all, couldn't cells growing in the absence of oxygen simply disregard pyruvate as a waste product? In the absence of fermentation, which products deried from glycolysis would accumulate in cells under anaerobic conditions? Could the metabolism of glucose via the glycolytic pathway continue in the absence of oxygen in cells that cannot carry out fermentation? Why or why not?
In fermentation of sugars by yeast, what are the reactants and what are the products?
What would be the limiting factor for ATP production by glycolysis in a strenuously-exercising muscle that lacks lactate dehydrogenase?A. the supply of NAD+B. increased acidity from lactic acid, causing muscle damageC. the supply of pyruvateD. the supply of ADPE. the supply of O2
Lactic acid can only be produced in the presence of O2.A. TrueB. False
Fermentation of a glucose molecule has the potential to produce a net number of _____ ATPs.A. 0B. 2C. 4D. 40
Cellular respiration catabolizes food molecules to produce ATP. A glucose molecule was imported into the cytosol of a human cell. Which catabolic process can this glucose molecule immediately enter?A. Pyruvate OxidationB. GlycolyisC. The Krebs cycleD. Electron Transport ChainE. Alcohol Fermentation
NAD+ is the _____ form of NADH while NADH is the _____ form of NAD+.A. product; substrateB. oxidized; reducedC. substrate; productD. cation; anionE. reduced; oxidized
What is the role of fermentation in yeast? Under what environmental conditions will fermentation occur? What product is produced and secreted by the yeast as a result?
the net products of anaerobic respiration areA. 2 ATP, NAD+, either lactic acid or ethanol and CO2.B. 2 ATP, NADH, either lactic acid or ethanol and CO2.C. 2 ATP, NADH, ethanol and CO2.D. 4 ATP, NAD+, either lactic acid or ethanol and CO2.
Suppose you discovered a mutant yeast whose glycolytic pathway was shorter because of the presence of a new enzyme catalyzing the following reaction:Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate + H2O + NAD+ → NADH + H+ + 3-phosphoglycerateWhich of the following changes would you expect to find in the growth and metabolism of the mutant yeast?A. The mutation will cause the yeast to grow faster under aerobic conditions.B. The formation of pyruvate from glucose will be energetically more favorable.C. The formation of pyruvate from glucose will be energetically less favorable.D. The mutation will cause the yeast to grow faster under anaerobic conditions.E. The mutant will not grow under anaerobic conditions.F. The mutant will not grow under aerobic conditions.